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Caro Seaman
9/1/2011 08:33:57 am

I think that being internationally minded since an early age is one of the most important topics that schools all over the world should teach to their students. It is necessary to awake this international mind among children and teenagers because as the author mentions, in order to understand ourselves we have to understand the others first. For this, school teachers have to prepare certain activities such as food festivals or costume days which will awake the student´s interest in the topic in a more creative way.
However, it is worth to mention that there are some people that oppose to multiculturalism because they are narrow-minded. They do not want to either teach or understand why human beings behave in certain ways in some detailed conditions or situations. Finally, another important aspect explained in the text is the confrontation of stereotypes and exotic images that we have created. It is the task of the teachers to ¨destroy¨ such prejudices such like the confusion of the terms Arab and Muslim. This is mainly why cross-cultural learning is such an important experience for students: They have the opportunity to explore multiple perspectives by studying different points of view.

Carmen Vinueza
9/1/2011 09:43:48 am

I think that international understanding development is an important aspect in this globalized world, especially for young people. Big enterprises now require more prepared professionals. Companies hire personal from all over the world, young people must be prepared for the challenge of working with people from different cultures and civilization; they need to be aware of all the events that are happening in the world,that is why international education is needed for. I also think that problems like terrorism, war, are the result of the lack of understanding to the other cultures, lack of respect toward others, lack of tolerance, aspects that can be achieved through international education.
These aspects show us that international education should be included in the curriculum and it has to be taken as serious as the other subjects. Students with this new subject will value other cultures with activities that will be taken from real situations. Schools should be places where students can explore different ways of getting to one culture such us discussing with teachers about different music, art, food, different ways of behavior, knowing the differences of each culture but with a sense of equality, no culture should be explained as better than other one. Only with a multiculturalism approach in the education, people will eliminate stereotypes, barriers that determine the behavior of most of the people.

Mayté Burgos
9/1/2011 11:01:58 am

In my opinion, I consider that being an internationally mindedness in these times is really important, because we are part of a globalized world. In the articles, authors have tried to emphasize the importance to educate, not in the traditional way, as has been happening since the beginning. They have tried to change the traditional methodology by implementing student awareness of international perspectives. Teaching what international mindedness means to children and young people. This requires not only the students to learn about the different cultures, but also having the opportunity to interact with natives. To make this possible is necessary the teachers to have a multicultural view, and in that way they can transmit their knowledge to their students. One point that I would like to mention is the importance of international strength and multicultural curriculum that teach crucial skills and knowledge not only about culture, but about what happens in the rest of the world.
At this point we can say that global educator plays an important role because they lead student’s lives into cross-cultural experience that also includes the development of open mindedness, anticipation of complexity, and the resistance to stereotyping. Teachers create in student’s mind a different view of people around the world from inside and outside. New generations are being prepared by global educators that lead them to embrace a globalized world by showing them the future that comes ahead in global nations and in the planet.

Karen Garzón Sherdek
9/1/2011 01:27:35 pm

In my point of view, globalization is an inevitable phenomenon in human history, which has been bringing the world closer through the exchange of goods, products, information, knowledge and culture. It is important to prepare students in today´s interdependent world. They have to be in contact with people from different countries, because as the authors mentioned: “In order to understand ourselves we have to understand the others first”. Authors also suggested a change of traditional methodology, because if students make sense of international affairs, they will know what multiculturalism is, and understand even more others reality. They are going to have important tools for their future and that might change their lives.

Basically, the program consists in teaching children how they can interact with other cultures and being allowed to speak with natives, in order to learn its culture and to comment their experience to others. It is important to mention that teachers play an important role, due to they have to present opportunities to their students, in order to have success in this new form of education. As a conclusion, I consider that humans should be more humanitarian, and more concerned about what happens around the world, and a good way to start that is by teaching children the importance of cross cultural communication.

Johanna Gallardo
9/2/2011 02:22:33 am

I consider that the reading is very important for today's kids and teenagers because, nowadays, we live in a globalized world where everything is interconnected: from commerce, products interchange and technology to culture. As the author says "economic and social world is changing... students in the future may work for companies run from entirely different continents, owned and managed by people from different cultures". So, I think it is important to teach students how to behave with other people who is different to us, how to be internationally minded so we can, somehow, stop racism and intolerance and learn to be part of this economic, social and political globalized world.

Educators are the key in this process. I think that they can help students to develop their own perspective and ideas about multiculturalism, therefore, they will have diverse points of view and not the one that has been given by their culture. In addition, I believe that, in order to have an international mindedness, it is important that teachers bring people to share their stories, so students can understand their reality because “authentic learning occurs when students from diverse cultures meet and work together”. I think that this involves a fundamental change in thought and behavior, and it is on us: students and teachers, the responsibility of acquiring the skills in cross cultural communication to consider as equals.

Patricio Suárez
9/2/2011 02:23:31 am

I consider that being internationally minded is not any more an option but a must due to the continuous process of international integration. The way we have been raised may differ considerably to the one of our children. Adding a program of international culture as a subject in schools seems to me a good try to overcome cultural misunderstanding among us. Unfortunately, we have been exposed to too many stereotypes which have shaped our minds into a single view of reality. We consider our behaviors as normal and others as bizarre. We are able to see only one reality and unable to consider a different point of view.
Education is the key aspect in the development of a person; therefore cultural class if handled appropriately could develop more understanding people. But we don’t have to wait our children to sae the world. It is our commitment to overcome stereotypes.

Elisa Peñaherrera
9/2/2011 02:50:13 am

Nowadays we live in a world that is influenced by television, radio, and most of all in schools kids are influenced by the education they receive. Therefore it depends on the educators to make a difference by helping them to be open-minded and not to have stereotypes. The article shows the importance on teaching about a certain culture from the point of view of this culture, not from the country were the students are. By examining all the circumstances of a culture historical events, political, economical and cultural developments they can understand why human beings behaved in a certain way. An example of this that I found really interesting was the one on learning the process of exploring America, students learn from both points of views, not only as the one that for example I was thought in school in which explorers are heroes but also from the point of view of native Americans and the actions of the explorers.
By seeing both sides of the story, students can actually become internationally minded and get to notice that there are more cultures around the world and by learning about them they can get rid of stereotypes. An exercise that I found particularly interesting is the one where students share correspondence with someone of another country, another culture and even another language, by this they can be aware and understand similarities and differences among their own cultures and actually they can become global citizens, someone that knows and cares for other nations not just his own. In conclusion education is the answer in order to help children to understand the world and help them become part of it. Plus this should not be the complete responsibility of the teachers and educators but also from the parents. They have to get rid of the misinformation and teach their kids to respect and know other cultures.

Fanny Salazar
9/2/2011 02:59:08 am

I think that the teaching of international culture in schools is a good idea. There are immense differences all over the world among each other’s perceptions. Teachers have a big role in the society; they are the ones who form little kids. As mentioned in the text an international educator has to be an open minded person, someone who has lived by himself cultural shock. The actual working atmosphere requires people to have international experience. We may probably live in a totally different country what could cause us difficulties. An international curriculum is going to become a necessity for enterprises whose headquarters are not going to be a single country anymore.
International culture courses have to be taken as a serious subject. Sometimes these subjects are disregarded because people consider them unimportant. I think that a serious international class should include continuous interaction with foreigner people as well as an international field trip.

María Belén Del Pozo
9/2/2011 03:14:54 am

Nowadays we are living in a globalized world, thus our education must be internationally focused. The article talks about an international mentality that all of us must have; a fact which I totally agree with. Those epochs in which we used to think that “the world” was our country is over, with the current technological advances and the influence of different cultures in our country and worldwide; students in the future will be working for companies run from entirely different continents, owned and managed by people from different cultures. So how this is the reality we, as rational human beings, should learn how to deal with different cultures and we should understand that international education must be more than the five Fs, as the article named it, referring to food, festivals, famous people, fashion and flags. The term internationally minded uses and builds a sense of one`s own national identity to understand and work with the national identities experienced and felt by other cultures.

If we compare 2011 with a couple of decades ago, we can clearly notice that people didn’t use to care a lot about international issues or that they prefer to do business with companies inside the same country; they use to think internationally when it was holiday just for spending vacations abroad. However, this fact has certainly changed as the time has gone by and I am sure it will still change. Today we have a really big influence of other countries and therefore of other cultures that have a different language and way of thinking. Simply asking students to dress in their national costumes and join the parade around the schools does not provide the learning experiences that develop rigorous thinking about international concerns. I really liked the article and I do think we have to start from now to think internationally.

Vanessa Vernaza
9/2/2011 03:22:45 am

I think that it is extremely important to be internationally minded since we are little kids. It is something that needs to be taught in any type of institution because we live in a globalized world and we need to get used to interact with other people, to know more about the other cultures and also to let the others know about us. As the author says “In order to understand ourselves we have to understand the others first” and that is exactly what we need to do. For me, implementing a totally new methodology at schools is a great idea. This kind of education will let the children and teenagers have a new concept of the world, they can realize that even if we live in a small country we are constantly exposed to people, cultures, enterprises, realities that are not just the same as what we have and we live in the daily basis.

We are used to believe on everything what people says about something “unknown or new” but it is important to have the chance to explore and to break down the barriers and prejudices that don’t let us see the world in a different way. The new generations need to be prepared and the only way is by letting them have this multicultural approach that will let them think and act in a different way.

Nicole King
9/2/2011 03:55:16 am

I think that nowadays it would be selfish to think that we cannot live without the others, as we need to take into account that every country in the world depends from another one. And it’s a fact that we cannot pretend to respect a person without accepting their background, culture and traditions. And it is not only about having 1 or two days per year to acknowledge the value and importance of others cultures, but to be constantly surrounded by them. This is the only way to create an internationally minded society, which recognizes the importance of other’s cultures, and learn from them without leaving aside one’s identity. When we open our eyes to the knowledge we can understand that our opinion, ideas or traditions are not the only option, but there are millions of other’s which are as valid as mines.
I am sure that if children from all over the world receive this internationally minded education, in their future they will be able to comprehend the global situation without misjudging people. This awareness and understanding of the similarities and differences among peoples should be given enough importance among the societies, for it to be successful and not be just another project that was left unfinished. Cultural awareness is a tool that we must learn to use.

Katherine Agurto
9/2/2011 03:55:47 am

At the present time, the world is in the tendency of moving in step with globalization. That is why it is so important to teach students about multiculturalism, cultures, and the different point of view of the countries. And as Chimamanda said people need to have a two side story to really understand the history of the people. The international curriculum has the intention of developing people that are internationally minded and as in the text says “it will be the best hope for eradicating fear and suspicion and achieving peace, tolerance, and global cooperation”. The goal of the near future could be people that feel citizen of the world, that have understanding and awareness of interdependence of people, countries and cultures beyond one´s nationality.

I believe that this open and international-minded education is going to lead people to comprehend the multipart and the enormous changes that have made our world what it is in the actual time. The strongest manifestation of globalization is the international flows of people, technology and information creating integration among countries. And the new generations have a global reality so they should have a global education with a large-scale curriculum focus in the international relations.

Daniela Pazmiño
9/2/2011 05:21:03 am

Nowadays, we can't say that we belong only to one culture. We are living in a globalized world where it's necessary to be aware of what's happening around us. Moreover, we must know how to adapt and respect other cultures that may be completely different to ours.

In order to be a "global citizen", it's important to offer new types of educations, were kids can get familiar with the international community from an early age.

Being international-minded is a process. It means that at school and at home, kids and teenagers need to be in constant contact with activities and things that could help them to open their minds and prevent them from creating cultural barriers.

Everyone should notice that it is extremely important to understand and respect other people so that we can improve ourselves.

Teaching someone to be international-minded can be a highly interesting and amusing experience for both the teacher and the student.

We must consider that in this world where we muat interact with people from all round the globe, it's imperativ to discover new perspectives of life. Like that, we'll be contributing to build a culture of peace and tolerance.

Fabián Campos A.
9/2/2011 05:46:29 am

There are an amazing number of cultures with deep values that can help to build a better World. In fact, each culture can enrich our knowledge about the human being true. But we can’t love what we don’t know. If we know something better, we will love it better. It could be the cause of the lack of multiculturalism: we don’t know about other cultures or we know only stereotypes that give us false and exotic images about them. This kind of view has led in social problems like racism, xenophobia and religious persecution, which can be cause of chases in a World whose borders are only in people’s mind.

For this reason, I think that schools, colleges and universities have the responsibility to deliver effective internationally minded education, in which educators play an important role. In actual fact, educators need to assume new ways for the cross-cultural learning that has been overshadowed by misinformation. However, parents are also really important during this process, in which students learn to respect others without losing their own values. In effect, this kind of education can help to build world peace through new true perspectives about a situation. Also, international minded education is based in universal values that help us to recognize and respect others.
Greetings! :)

Ángela León Cáceres
9/2/2011 06:12:13 am

Human beings are all different, understanding our differences, is the key for reaching a social improvement. Since we are little, we can notice that not everybody think the way we do, not everybody is even physically similar. The fact is that since we are little, we need to understand and accept our differences, trying to reach a multicultural behavior. And that doesn’t mean that we need to abandon our own beliefs and practices, we can get into other cultures and perspectives just by knowing people. Nowadays, we live in a globalized world, in which communication has helped people to get in touch with other; to travel and know different perspectives and situations. Being international-minded is a process in which we are all involved, and of course it would be easier to start at home, and in our second home: school.
Each day represents a challenge, a challenge for us to improve, to know, to be a world’s citizen. It is fundamental to reach this goal, with this; social and physical stereotypes can be each day more open, and moreover, people can have an international-minded behavior. This would be helpful not just for us and our own understanding, but for the whole world´s comprehension.

Ana Daniela Naranjo
9/2/2011 06:20:35 am

Being internationally minded is not easy. The process must begin since we are little. It is not just about tolerating or admiring a culture, it means also know, understand, and respect. Culture is everything that we learn in society. You can’t say that you understand a culture if you just eat its food or know about its clothes. You must also understand believes, fears, history, and every aspect that made other culture different. It is true that festival can teach people about the folklore of a culture but is it necessary to complete the information with aspects very important as the religion and the myths. The best idea is to travel or to talk with people from other cultural identities about their culture.
It doesn’t matter which is to career or how old you are, every person can teach and learn to other people about other culture’s costumes and the respect that we must show for each one. We can apply this with our kids, depending the age we can do many activities to become them more internationally minded. The important of being internationally minded is inestimable because we live in a globalized world.

9/2/2011 08:06:37 am

I think that we are living in a changing and globalize world, in which we all are related among each others, that is why is so important to be open minded and to learn how to respect other points of view, even though ours could be completely different, we must learn how to be tolerant and respectful, in fact I consider that these are key points for living in a peaceful society.

After saying this we can notice the importance of international education, actually we can take this as an oportunity to finally brake down with the stereotypes societies, we will be creating new generations with other way of thinking because i believe that the biggest problems that humanity has faced began thanks to intolerance, racism and selfishness, maybe this could be the solution and the road to a better world

Andrea Valarezo
9/2/2011 08:18:33 am

I think that it is really important to adapt ourselves to the globalized world, which brings new tendencies for us to consider. One of these tendencies is the fact that education should now have an international approach. Students are willing to study abroad more and more, and this is one of the reasons to develop international understanding in young people. Moreover, it is necessary for all of us to get involved with other cultures. Thus, we should learn more about the cultures we have in our own country, to explore other countries later and understand them in a better way. Culture should be one subject in every school, or at least an important theme to go into in the class that we usually know as history, where we get the main information about other countries and their traditions.
It is also essential to take into account that if we are planning to work in other countries, or as representatives of a multinational enterprise, we need to understand the other person’s manners and if possible, try to relate with them in the same language. That is why it is so important to make the students relate to different people by making exchanges. The only way to actually learn about other cultures is meeting the people and working with them. Furthermore, schools need to teach the students different subjects with teachers from other parts of the world, make them read about foreign authors, discuss controversial situations that are occurring in every country. By doing this, we will be prepared to have several points of view and a variety of perspectives about the current problems in the world.

Dayra Puertas
9/2/2011 11:15:02 am

Nowadays we live in a globalized world where been internationally minded is something new generations should be born with. This means that kids should be able to understand themselves, know why they are different to others and see these differences as strengthens to build a better world. Each culture is rich in different ways, each one of them has sort of values that prevail in their culture. If parents and teachers start to educate people open minded especially in international cultures, I am sure that these new citizens will combine the best things of the cultures they know, and this will make them better citizens of the world.
Actually I think that nowadays we have more and more people that have bi, tri and more cultural orientations due to the cultural exchanges or study exchanges are more common. And this trend have created that all people who are traveling abroad their countries, they can return with a lot of new learning from the culture where they were living, and they can share it with their relatives and friends. To conclude, I think parents and teachers are key objects for having a border-less world, and I also consider that our generation is starting the era of internationally minded people, but we have more to learn and a long way to goo!!!

Sabitre Paspuel
9/2/2011 11:15:30 am

I think education must be focus on current globalized world in all the aspects. As we can see the world is changing in different aspects which are in evidence in the younger generation. In this article is evident the importance that a person be internationally minded. People who are able to adapt to diverse traditions from other countries would influence children to adopt a different perspective. So, schools must offer a multicultural education concerning most of the subjects in order to have a wide understanding regarding the events that happen every day over the world; this is the main advantage of this education. In addition, children would debate about actual world problems with substantial reasons because they would know perfectly the history of those cultures which would allow them to think in a different way taking into consideration the way they are and their behaviors.

Nowadays, international mindedness is considered to be more significant than ever before. Some educators would like to eliminate the nation-state with the aim of join people; it means the extinction of boundaries which forbid the interaction among cultures of different countries. It’s important to remark that multicultural education will not allow children to lose their own identity; in fact, they will be more identified with it at the moment to understand some. However, there is still controversy when this topic is taken into consideration. On the other hand, the importance that can be imposed by a global educator is enormous, if teachers make children to study different ethnics; they will be able to analyze them and have another perspective and maybe know minority cultures which rather are mentioned in daily live. Finally, this sort of education would allow the world to be better because everyone would be worried by countries’ problems maybe from other continents.

Geovanna Velásquez
9/2/2011 12:38:59 pm

As a direct result of cultural and economic globalization and the associated mobility, communities’ worldwide (and particularly major cities) are becoming increasingly diverse. As a shocking example, in a recent census, Amsterdam’s non-Dutch inhabitants became the majority when their numbers passed beyond 50% mark. Such statistics meant that international education can no longer be the domain of an elite minority within international schools. Further, cultural and linguistic complexity makes it the reality for many national schools as well. This in turn increases the need for faculty with specialize knowledge about international context of education and skill developing relevant curriculum and pedagogy.
In an interdependent society where we live, it will be absurd to think that it is not necessary to open our minds (and hearts) to a new and wonderful unknown world. Sadly, the ignorance is the equivalent for misjudging, underestimating, disrespecting and so on. I certainly believe that education is the basis for every change in every aspect. We have always listened “children are future”, however we are making a huge mistake, they are not the future, they are the present; and that’s where we have to focus. if properly planted the following message on the head of each one of us, the first person singular is the first person plural. Viewing our world not as ‘us and them’, but ‘us and us’: “I am because we are” ,I'm sure our society would have advanced as a cultural civilization.

Angela Ponce
9/2/2011 12:45:44 pm

“Civilization, to be worthy of the name, must afford other methods of settling human differences than those of bloodletting.”
Ralph Chaplin
During the history, the human race has emphasized its differences instead of our resemblances and their importance. Our intolerance to the rest of the world has been the main cause of wars, conflicts, genocides, and all the damage that our “civilization” has done to itself. I consider individualism as the main source of our intolerance because the geographic barriers do not move further away ones from others, as our prejudices.
For that reason, I agree that the only way to modify our future is changing our present. And definitely, our present is our children. Thus, education is our best option, to improve our society with open minded people, with human values above economic or politic ones, with the enough knowledge to accept and respect others as their peers. Since Arabs, Muslims, Japanese, Chinese, Croats, British, Americans, all of us have something in common but our tolerance lies in how we face our differences. Children must know the complete story; they must have all the perspectives that one culture can have, in order to respect them, to eliminate the stereotypes. Our children are citizens of the world; they do not know limits in their lives. We are who block their minds, spirits and hearts. Therefore, it is our purpose to help them to be internationally minded not only for a globalized world but for a more tolerant and understanding one.

Sofía Navarrete
9/2/2011 02:32:47 pm

In my opinion cultures should be respected. Even though globalization phenomena is one very important thing we cannot avoid or just stop thinking of, there´s still another big “issue” we can’t miss or deny (despite the mass media and commercial publicity) and that is cultural background, and with it a population’s ancestral history. But, what is the frontier line between having an own and unique population culture and being part of a worldwide “evolved” lifestyle? Which one is better? Do we think we’re better off alone with a local culture or we rather act as cosmopolitan citizens; not from here or there, but from the world?
It doesn’t matter if we are Chinese, Indian, American, etc… each and every single citizen of the world deserves respect just because the fact of being a human being; because we are part of this world, like animals and plants are too. For me it is always interesting to share with people from all over the world, because you improve your knowledge, you expand your mind, because you start to realize that life has more than one perspective. I agree with this article and its proposal of international minded perception. I believe that education is the best tool to be tolerant among populations around the world.

Anna Breymann
9/4/2011 03:01:47 am

The way of teaching is one of the most important things about education. Students who are given the right instructions and who are led into the direction that stereotyping is wrong and that there is much more behind it, are a lot more open to the history and culture of other countries or ethnic groups. Furthermore they are able to understand and are willing to learn more about the differences between cultures. It is also important to start teaching about global and intercultural ongoings at an early age, so that it is a coherent process.
I believe that everybody has a slightly different perception of the term multiculturalism, but that it is very important for the future that as many people as possible will be aware of these variable histories and habits of others and respect and understand them the way they are. The most effective way to achieve this, in my opinion, is through education.

Anahí Herrera Gutiérrez
9/4/2011 05:24:54 pm

The time when countries used to work as individuals is gone. It’s time to stop beating around the bush; the world we live in, is a globalized world. Therefore we have got to live surrounded by people with many different nationalities, cultures, believes and languages. Being international-minded depends on each one of us. And the effort of the citizens in a nation is the only way to develop it. I totally agree with what the article talks about. I believe that we as human beings should have an international mentality. Nowadays we can clearly see that most of the companies run and owned in our country are being managed by foreign people, who actually use to have a culture that is different as ours. So if this is the reality we live in, it is necessary for each of us to know how to deal with this, and most important to respect that fact. In order to reach a multicultural behavior we need to get to know other people. Live with foreign people, share their culture and if possible learn their language.

It all should start with the smallest ones. And it doesn’t mean to forget about your own culture and believes. We are use to misjudge people from other countries, sometimes because of a simple story we heard about someone from there, or because prejudices make us generalize our mentality about certain countries and people. It is a fact that we live in a globalized world so we need to take into account that every country has something that another country in some place in the world will need. I’m pretty sure that the main reason of cultural misunderstandings is the insufficient importance countries give to the awareness and understanding of the similarities and differences among people and societies. The longest journey begins with a simple step, so, the sooner we start, the better will it be. The key point of that journey is for the schools and media to focus in international relations, countries integration and culturally learning, which would lead to an internationally minded behavior.

Belen Haro
9/5/2011 01:47:58 am

I think that in this modern and globalized world we all need to be “world citizens”, we must be tolerant and open minded. We need to realize that we can´t stay in a bubble closed in our own culture, traditions and customs, we need to “think outside of the box” to open ourselves to new and different experiences, people, culture, languages. But to reach an international mind, we need to start since we are little kids. Everything starts with the education. In the way our parents and teachers have taught us to be, to act and to think. A person who grows up thinking that the world is only his city and customs will never be internationally minded. But a person whose teachers and parents have taught him to be open to other people and experiences will have a different type of mind and a different view of the world and will not have only one single perception of the world.

To conclude, I think we all need to open ourselves to the world, to have new experiences, to know about other cultures, ethnic groups, religions, we need not to stay in a bubble!
This can be reached mainly by education and by the way that each one has been educated, and also we need to respect everyone and be tolerant.

Mayté Burgos
9/10/2011 09:46:02 am

Well in my opinion, I consider that globalization and education play an important role in our society. As we know in 1948 the Universal Declaration of Human Rights proclaimed free and compulsory education as a basic human right. From this, in the following years has been implemented the promotion and development of education by different international committees. According to the author, potential education can be achieved in different ways. For example, by implementing a strong educational system that will create a deep pool of resources from which competent policy markets will emerge. By sharing knowledge, because education has powerful effects on human development. And finally, by creating good professionals because, economic development in a global market is easier if a country’s workforce is productive and has the mental agility to attract new markets. T. W. Schultz said that human capital represents the skills acquired by people through education, training, and on-the-job learning. Now, introducing the term “globalization” we can say that, this one is changing the basis of the world economy from industry to knowledge. Although globalization has been beneficial for the richest countries, there are other countries that have suffered globalization consequences. This is because of the inequality that exists between the countries. Global income inequality is mirrored by global inequality in education. Education promotes income growth, which in turn promotes further investment in education.
“Higher education is to a knowledge economy as primary education is to an agrarian economy and secondary education is to an industrial education.”
When we talk about civilization, the first thing that comes to my mind is different cultures and styles of life. For example in the second reading the author said that conflicts have been occurred throughout history. But if we know more about the different cultures and even more about their identities, we’ll take better decisions in the future because, we might anticipate the conflicts that could happen. As Jacques Delors said “future conflicts will be sparked by cultural factors rather than economics or ideology”. We must also stop thinking in past systems, such as Cold War World, because now we are in the Globalization system in which walls between countries, markets and disciplines are increasingly been blown away.

Karen Garzón Sherdek
9/10/2011 10:55:36 am

In the world, there are important events that affect humans in a positive or negative way. People have always been in “war” because of different ideologies, political and economic interests. People use politics not just to advance their interests, but also to define their identity. It was assumed that the Cold War meant the end of significant conflict in global politics and the emergence of one relatively harmonious world. However, the world has been dealing with other conflicts such as “power”. Every country looks for its own interest, and that is understandable, due to each one has its own identity and sovereignty. It has often been argued that the balance of power is really an imbalance of power, because one country is always looking to be better than another one, as the case of the United States and the URSS. During the Cold War, these countries wanted a technological dominance, after that, they had a politic conflict between communism and capitalism. In my opinion, the conflict between U.S.A and the URSS doesn´t have justification, by the catastrophic effects that nuclear weapons may have caused.

On the other hand, spite of all the problems, education has a potential to make tasks easier in a number of ways. The fact is that knowledge promotes health-seeking behaviour and good health. For that reason, in a globalized world, were the basis of world economy from industry to knowledge is changing, people must be prepared to face all the obstacles that life puts us in front. The presence of large immigrant population requires a sensitive and effective response from school systems. The latter will need to take careful account of immigrants’ situation. People have to understand that inequity between countries is rising, and that globalization is favouring rich countries rather than poor ones. The Millennium Development Goals focus on reducing poverty via the channels of education, health care and reduces gender inequality.Nevertheless, there is still inequality in education that is why primary education alone is insufficient in today´s economy development. Globalization, then, is increasing the importance of education due to the high demand of it. I consider myself as a privileged person for having education of quality, and with university basis I can contribute to the development of my country.

Katherine Agurto
9/10/2011 11:21:07 am

I truly think that education plays an essential role in creating understanding at a premature age, that includes an arbitrage information with different perspectives that produce a whole picture of the world that people couldn`t have if they only look at it from one perspective. In one of the books the author implies that for people seeking an identity, enemies are essential. That is why the grouping of states is the eight major civilizations, because of the commonalities, preferences and differences and also Countries with the same cultural affinities cooperate economically and politically. People thought that the end of the Cold War would mean the end of significant conflict in global politics and the emergence of one harmonious world, but it actually open the world to a new era, the globalization era, where global integration is a key to reducing the income differentials between countries.

The goal of the future generation and the modern education will be to help individuals to see where they fit into the world, as world citizens but keeping their beliefs, religion, cultures, costumes, etc. So children growing up will develop personal skills to learn, to work, and to live with others, which are increasingly likely to be of very different racial, linguistic, religion and cultural backgrounds. They should have an awareness of environmental degradation, international migration and international security that are current topics. With technology and Internet, two powerful tools nowadays, education centers can improve quality to provide students with a wider and arbitrage education. To increased international communication, global awareness, language skills to the next generations so they will be ready for this globalized world.

Caro Seaman
9/11/2011 03:01:04 am

In order to understand ourselves, we have to understand the past. After the Cold War ended at the beginning of the 1990´s, a new world order took place. There was supposed to be a simultaneous process of integration among East and West. Instead, our civilization became multipolar and multicivilizational, just like Samuel P. Huntington mentioned in the book. People began to ask themselves about their identity and their future. The post-Cold War world was supposed to be peaceful. However, new conflicts escalated, primarily those between tribes and ethnical groups, since they suffered from a short process of integration among them, which resulted in “bloody clashes of tribes” because of their different cultures.
On the other hand, the post-Cold War world resulted in a new international system: globalization. This is really an old process but it began to be stronger after the “Iron Curtain” went down. The countries from East and West began to interact more with each other and the international affairs became really important. One of the most important characteristics about globalization is the use of technology and the Internet to communicate globally. These tools have helped several countries to progress in terms of economic growth. Additionally, education is another important fact that results from globalization: Without it, countries wouldn´t have the chance to develop economically. In the actuality, children need to receive an education that satisfies the new needs of a globalized world, which include the ability to study and to understand other cultures and to transcend beyond the cross-cultural communication. This is why a primary education is insufficient for a sustained economic development.

Nicole King
9/11/2011 11:00:29 pm

Every epoch is dominated by a phenomenon, which determinates people’s behavior. In the past the world witnessed the division of the world due to economy, politics or ideology. The Cold War is an exemplary of the latter; the world was divided into 3 blocks fighting to gain power under the coverage of 2 superpowers: USA and the USSR. Nowadays, the new tendency is balance and integration, through globalization. It is now an interconnected place, where the competition is extremely high, and in order to be able to reach this development, the societies must be educated.

One of the Millennium Development Goals is to ensure a completed primary education for every child in the world. But it is not enough. In order to reduce poverty, gender inequality and increase health care, it governments, and the society in general should also ensure the secondary education. This could be a way to reach a more equal world, because we have seen, that globalization has increased the breach between the poorer and the richer countries. And shows that the conflict post Cold-War does exist, it isn’t as everyone thought, that we would live in peace, and there would be no conflicts, as what was expected after the Cold War; the world is just divided in a different way, the term “culture clash” is now part of everyone’s vocabulary; civilizations have gained awareness, and culture is now seen as an important factor when talking about international relations or possible conflicts.

Elisa Peñaherrera
9/12/2011 12:19:41 am

After the end of cold war every country became interconnected with globalization. Nowadays every country looks for development and every decision is made quickly. Is true that has increased development in some countries but also the benefits of globalization have gone disproportionately to wealthy countries and poverty in some areas is increasing this is due to the high competition of markets of every country. Cheaper products are produced and business close and employees lose their jobs. But is important to always see both sides of the story different perspectives, there is a way to turn around this and is imperative for every nation to have good educational systems. Education creates resources from which competent policy makers will emerge and eventually an economic development can be achieved, because the work force will be productive and will have the mental agility to create new business opportunities.
Nevertheless even though we live in a globalized world were countries are integrated we still live under the perception that there are two worlds the Western one and the non-Western nations. The developed one and the less developed. In order to break these perceptions the educational systems must improve as well. Governments must invest in education by improved its technology, educators must teach about worldwide subjects and the education level must improve is quality. As the article mentions nowadays just a primary economy is not sufficient, governments must promote incentives for students to complete their school process at least to a secondary one, the ideal is for every student to graduate from universities. As mentioned also the education system must promote cross cultural interchange in order to allow students to reflect on other cultures and let them know, understand and respect other cultures and maybe avoid a bigger cultural clash and perhaps avoid future conflicts.

Ángela León Cáceres
9/12/2011 03:07:46 am

There are several factors that influentiate the process of globalization, this term appeared so long ago; taking into consideration that every aspect was perceived in a different but global way. In this point, we can mention the importance of education. One of the world’s major problem is the lack of opportunities for people to study, it is know that countries that are in way of development, the literacy rate has diminished. However, in other countries considered undeveloped, this rate has not changed. This is the case of Somalia and Congo, just for mentioning. In addition to this, there are several disjunctives in relation to education; quality or quantity. Certainly, for the moment it is important to balance both, first of all including educational campaigns that would strengthen the system ,and then modifying and improving quality. Nevertheless, the quality of education is wide and difficult to measure.
The fact is that the world has passed through a lot of changes; including wars, revolutions and conflicts. This last, has helped the world and its nations to grow in different aspects. Facts like technology, commerce, industrialization and education have changed the way people act, think and response. The Cold war has shown that the cultural problems were the basis of every conflict in between the nations. As a result, multinational and multicultural understandings are fundamental for an educational improvement, always taking into consideration the local knowledge as a principal pillar. Moreover, globalization poses many challenges for education but also creates new opportunities; the world’s aim is to ensure that the basic human right of education would be accomplished. With this, social inequality would diminish, giving more opportunities to every human being.

Vanessa Vernaza
9/12/2011 03:46:12 am

I personally think that it is important for all of us to know about all the events that have occurred in the past in order to understand the reasons why things work in a certain way nowadays. For a long time, the world was divided because of political, ideological or economic conflicts. But after all, people started to find the way to create a better world, they reached to agreements, and a process called globalization started to spread in every country and it eliminated the barriers among them. Even if the process of becoming globalized countries started, there was an unequal development and the power was concentrated in the blocs, not all the countries advanced as the others and that’s why now we have the division of developed, developing and undeveloped countries. Globalization includes many factors such as education, technology, commerce, and many others, but one of the most important things has always been education. Education is the best and the only way to improve social and economic development. In fact, the world is now characterized by a big gap of social inequality, with an educational improvement; for sure these gaps will diminish. Just by educating people, poverty, inequalities and social problems will reduce significantly and we will be able to have better services and opportunities.

After the Cold War, the world realized that the problems emerge because of cultural aspects and not because of industrial aspects. That’s why it is so important to have a multicultural education but taking into consideration also local knowledge in order to develop as a country and become more competitive with the other nations.

María Belén Del Pozo
9/12/2011 08:56:10 am

“Unless we hate what we are not, we cannot love what we are” I really liked this phrase because I do think it is the truth. Culture counts and cultural identity is what is most meaningful to most people. Life is definitely not isolation, when we talk about life we are talking about sharing and learning from others. We cannot deny our roots or our culture because then we will be denying our family, our heritage and most important we will be denying what we really are. As the last book said life is totally unpredictable, we don’t know what we will be doing next week or neither where we will be in three years time, but what we certainly know is that the world is covered with different people from the whole world. People that act, think and are different from you, but who deserve to be heard and to be respected exactly as you do. Each culture has its own marks such as flags, crosses, etc that represent symbols of cultural identity and we are in the moral obligation to interpret and respect them and not to judge them.

Now we are living in a globalized world that had replaced the Cold War System. But, do we really know what globalization involves? As the book explained, globalization refers to the process whereby countries become more integrated via movements of goods, capital, labor and ideas. However, living in a globalized world has a further meaning. That old-school idea that Ecuador, or any country was the “unique” one in the world is over. Now we have to think internationally and to understand that we will be dealing with people from all over the world every day. So here is where the role of education comes. A strong educational system can help to create leaders, people that develop well-built human capabilities. If we spread a global education to children based on respect and understanding of other countries, when they grow up they will have another perspective of the world. And maybe poverty won´t be a problem anymore if people can learn new skills and work productively with others. From my point of view that is exactly the key to success, learning how to perform effectively inside teamwork.

“You don't need fancy highbrow traditions or money to really learn. What the world just need are people with the desire to better themselves”. Adam Cooper

Johanna Gallardo
9/12/2011 09:52:05 am

Just like the reading expose, education is the key and a vital factor “in determination a countries wealth”. It is important for the development of the whole world that every kid in the globe can have access not only to basic education but also to superior education, because nowadays, we live in a globalized society and what happens in the other side of the oceans could affects us too. So it is important that kids can develop a creative and opened thinking and skills so they can work everywhere and communicate with different cultures. That is what makes a country to grow, because with productive people the economic development in a global market becomes easier.

Globalization is now part of our daily lives and it is making bigger the gap between rich and poor societies and “educational differences exacerbate the economic differences between countries”. Therefore, good education is needed to create new opportunities and respond to threats in a more efficient way. Operating “more effectively in competitive global economy”, bringing “nations closer together” and having a “cross cultural awareness” will make children help in the development of any country, because they are understanding the new challenges of the contemporary world, that’s why education is very important from an early age. This is a complementary part of the another reading about educators: they are the ones that have the responsibility of developing the internationally mindedness and make easier for kids to view things from other perspectives.

Dayra Puertas
9/12/2011 10:01:46 am

Through years, humanity and the world have passed through different systems. The most recent was the Cold War, where the world was divided into two opposite blocs. Nowadays, we are facing a new system called globalization, which is the inexorable integration of markets, nation states, and technologies in a faster, deeper and cheaper way. This system mainly has 3 balances, first between nation-states, second between nation-states and markets and finally between individuals and nation-states. In this context we can see that individuals are gaining power, and have a tremendous influence in nation-states and trade.
In order to empower these individuals, is important that children become globalist citizens, and the only way is through education. Education enables students and nations to operate more effectively in the global economy, attracting foreign investment and maintaining a sustainable economic growth. However, economics is not the only area where education will be useful for new generations, culture is also important in the way that in the new globalize word, the traditional boundaries are disappearing, and a variety of cultures are nearer to our homes. Then we need to educate the new generation in aptitudes for being flexible, creative thinking, skills in working with others, especially with the ones who share different ideologies and cultures; in achieving goals, and determination to get results. All these tools will raise people internationally minded, that would succeed, having a better world where poverty and diseases almost not exist.
Finally, people always tempt to divide people into us and them, because we see as threats to people that are not like us, who do not share our interests, culture or ideologies. The ¨us and them¨ concept is what we have to avoid, because in reality these threats are just in our minds.

Sabitre Paspuel
9/12/2011 10:15:52 am

I think that globalization is a significant process that unifies different countries and mainly different cultures. In one hand, it has a substantial impact which promotes an economic development; however, in some other cases this process does not have the same results. It has lead to a new require that is education. Currently, children are growing in a competitive world where education will be the only tool which will provides them an excellent future. That´s the main reasons by which governments of developing economies are investing more and more in education. For instance, India has an excellent high education; however, primary education has still many fails. Indeed, as the author says, currently each extra year that a person studies will represent better earnings in the future. I think Millennium Development Goals’ Initiative will play an important role over the world.
After the Cold War, politics has become multipolar and multicivilizational and distinctions among persons were neither ideological nor political, those were cultural. Also, politics has helped to define peoples’ identity. One statement that catches up my attention was the one in which says that “we know who we are only when we know who we are not and often only when we know whom we are against” because is true and when we see a different cultures we just have to see and try to adapt to this one because cannot make judgment of his behavior, thinking. In addition, most of important conflicts are not because of the differences that exist among social classes, because in the future will be among people who are different because fit in to distinct cultural entities.

9/12/2011 12:04:29 pm

In my opinion, I believe that globalization is a very important theme these days because everyone is related to each other, therefore the consequences that this phenomenon brings are both positive and negative, and depends on each person the way to react to this new trend and the challenges that it compromises. Some of the advantages of becoming globalized is the speed with everything is made and we can say that there are a lot of opportunities for countries to be better and improve their life conditions, however this has also caused a lot of inequality in societies and countries, because competence is so strong that some people even lose their jobs.

In the course of makind´s history we can see that each period or era has been marked by wars that have resulted from the different political interests, because we must remind that policy also defines the identity of a nation. At the end of the Cold War in the 90s our civilization became multipolar and multicivilizational, and in that way we became globalized.

We must be aware that with these conditions new conflicts could emerge due to cultural differences, because at being connected we could face clashes among each other

On the other hand I also believe that education is key in every society and every age, because education makes people think better and to analyze things in order to take the best decisions, I agree that many conflicts can be avoided with education and in a globalized world it is essential that people know and respect every culture without making judgments or have pre coincided ideas. In fact i could say that this is the only way to have a better and peaceful future

Geovanna Velásquez
9/12/2011 12:43:27 pm

“Education is an admirable thing, but it is well to remember from time to time that nothing that is worth knowing can be taught” Oscar Wilde
When I started thinking about why education is so important, I remembered my school years and I start to think what school life is all about? It is all about laying the foundation of our education. It is a place to understand why education is so important and how important it is! It is an institution, where we learn to read and write. School transforms kids into literate individuals. It is where we get our basics cleared and at the point of leaving school, we are all set to soar high in life, enter the new world in pursuit of our dreams.
I'd like to say that I truly believe that good- quality education is the panacea for every world's key problems'; but, as a matter of fact their importance cannot be over-emphasized. It is necessary to complement it, understanding and interacting within a culturally diverse and globally interconnected world. Its content includes the study of world cultures and religions, world literature, the interrelatedness of world history, global issues, global economic, technological, environmental, and political systems, non-state global actors, and cross-cultural communication skills.. For the past few centuries, we've seen tremendous advancements in science and education, yet depression and suicide seems to be on the rise; the planet is getting hotter; people stay 24/7 on their computers/mobile phones/TV, and hardly spend time with their families; crime rate seems to be on the increase; drug addiction and so on.

Geovanna Velásquez
9/12/2011 12:54:12 pm

We must become in international citizens but not forgetting our roots because that’s what make us unique and enrich our own culture making it wonderful. If each person doesn´t acknowledge where does he/she comes from how we would know where to go?.

Andrea Valarezo
9/12/2011 12:59:31 pm

In my opinion, nowadays, it is really important to teach children about culture and the new globalization tendencies. Education plays an important role in the creation of the student’s criteria. First of all, they must know about the communication facilities that there are, which allow us to acquire information about a lot of topics and over all about the conflicts that are being discussed worldwide. Furthermore it is necessary to let students know about the different kind of diseases that are affecting the society, such us HIV-AIDS and the economic consequences that it has in a variety of countries, especially the ones suffering of poverty. Moreover, students have to learn about the environmental changes that the world is experimenting.

Also, when speaking about education, there are some factors to consider. Depending on the development of each country, there are things like the lack of trained teachers, technological tools, equipment, a modern syllabus, etc., that determine the quality of the education. Besides, because of the integration of countries that comes along with the globalization, it is now usual, that students look for a better education in different countries. This allows them to explore and study the cultures that have other patterns than their own, by living the culture. The acquisition of knowledge about a culture is pretty beneficial; it is the actual learning of the traditions, language and coexistence with the people. Thus, the wars that could be provoked by the culture-differences will be avoided.

Belen Haro
9/12/2011 01:05:01 pm

I think globalization is the process through which the entire world is interacting and integrating, it is about people, companies, and governments, nations. This process involves cultures, international trades, information, technology, politics, etc. But I also think that the most important fact is the unification of the world through reduction or elimination of any kind of barrier.
It is an important fact that previous of the globalization system there was a completely opposite system which was the Cold War system when there were two opposite sides, one against the other, but now the globalization join us in many different aspects. Also the internet is an important fact that has to do with globalization, the entire world is now “on-line”, and of course it facilitated the communication, flow of information and also gives us a wider vision of the world.

Also I would to add that in a multicultural and globalize world, we all need to realize that there are many different people with different cultures and view of the world and it is imperative to have a wide vision of the latter and this can only be reached through education.
It depends on the people who are around us while we are growing up if we have a narrow or wide vision of the world.

In conclusion, I think this process has spread up significantly for the whole world and it has involved all of us in many aspects such as technological advances make it easier for people to travel, communicate, do business internationally, and to integrate and interact with different people and cultures, eliminating barriers.

9/12/2011 01:16:09 pm

Globalization cannot be described only as an economical phenomenon. Behind this word there are far more complicated social occurrences which are not always taken into account. In order to understand actual events it is important to know the origin of ethnicities and social groups. Through time humanity has tried to differentiate among the different groups however I think that now it’s time to merger and evolve. Just getting to know others is how we become conscious of who we are. Globalization should be an integration process which respects differences and makes us equal in diversity.
One of the main purposes for humanity is equality and equity. Education plays a big role in the development of every country and individual. Every year spent in education means more opportunities for this person to be independent. Education does not only mean more earning capacity, but self-progress. An educated individual is a healthier and more adaptable one. Education has not only to be compulsory to ensure people’s progress but it is important to raise education standars.

Carmen Vinueza
9/12/2011 01:20:38 pm

It was really interesting the perspective of these three readings about globalization. Comparing two systems; Cold War and Globalization made it clear to understand the approach of globalization. Each system with different points of view. The Cold War system was characterized by division, the threats and opportunities were depending on who you were divided from, since the world was divided by communism (Russia) and Capitalism (U.S.A). The symbol of this system was the Berlin Wall. On the other hand, Globalization is characterized by integration, threats and opportunities depend on who you are connected to, and the symbol of globalization is the Internet, the important tool that makes possible the integration of this world. The ideas of these two systems also differ; while in the Cold War the objective was having the biggest missile, in the globalization what is important is having the fastest modem. It’s really a different conception of the way of being powerful. But there is one thing that I considered these two systems have in common, both look for power. In the cold war through missiles, in the globalization through knowledge.
The idea of globalization that seeks power through knowledge means that it is a must to improve the education levels -especially in developing countries- in order to get economic wealth. It is important to consider that maybe education is not enough for economic development but it is necessary in most cases.It is necessary because of three important reasons. The first one has to do with high productivity and the use of technology, education will raise people´s capacity to produce more in one hour of work and at the same time, it will give the basis for rapid technological change that will move up any country´s economic development. The second one is related to the importance of cross-national communication. This is necessary since nowadays countries are becoming more interdependent economically, socially and politically. Education is necessary to develop the knowledge and skill to deal with aspects that go beyond their countries such as international migration. And the third one is related to increase the speed of change. People need to be skilled to be aware of how we can reduce illnesses such as HIV-AIDS, this kind of illness affect the economy since the treatment its really expensive. It’s important to consider that education will show us the way to be part of the world that now is in the new system: Globalization.

Angela Ponce
9/12/2011 01:58:48 pm

In the way as we see the world, is the way as we have evolved with it.

The world is in a constant evolution, for that reason, mankind has managed different realities during the history. People has managed them according to different models, models that in certain period were useful and relevant but later they became obsolete. Hence, the adaptability that human kind has to accept these changes will nowadays make the difference to recognize a globalized world. A world which historically was divided: in two ideological tendencies, or between zones of peace or disorder, or poor and rich countries, specifications which reflect some elements of reality but also have limitations.

Therefore, we can also consider that we have a multipolar, multicivilizational world. Since, cultural similarities and differences shape interests, oppositions and associations of states, creating civilization identities.

Thus, in order to comprehend better this new model of the world, most of us probably has to manage a vision with different perspectives. In other words, we have to watch the world by a cultural and political perspective, but also with a national security and the balance of power dimension, in addition with financial markets and the technological perspective and an environmental perception. And every other aspect that we could add to understand it better and the rest of the world citizens. Educating ourselves in managing these different perspectives is the only way to approach to our globalized world.

Anahí Herrera Gutiérrez
9/12/2011 03:14:35 pm

What is after all "globalization"? Looking at the facts, the end of the Cold War seemed to be an open door for people to live in a harmonious world, but instead of it a new era began. This era is the one we still live in, an era of integration where we are connected with other countries because of the exchange of goods, capital, labor and ideas. After all the hearth of globalization is international trade. But this also resulted in the presence of large immigrant populations. Nowadays we can find people from different nationalities, cultures and origins, right on the next corner. Therefore it is of main importance for every country to be capable of providing a good and rich on ideas school system, and I don’t want to talk about quality because I believe that we can’t certainly define what kind of education is the best one for a person. Starting by primary schools, it’s a reality that within developing countries isn’t enough.
Countries need to be aware that Children’s education should aim to develop the knowledge and skills to deal with issues that go beyond their “countries borders” and their everyday existence, but within developing countries there are still the ones who don’t have the opportunity to study. The health status of a person can be determined by their education. And the tendency is that people with poor education and living conditions get serious illnesses, the consequence of it is that these people aren’t able to work, that makes families poorer and incapable to afford their children’s education. Personally this part of the reading shocked me a lot because this is happening right now in some place in the world and even though we are aware of it, we can’t make anything improve it. But what we can do is to value the education we are getting now, so in my opinion we should take advantage of it and just look around and learn from the cultures that are surrounding us. The key point of this is to apply a global education based on respect and understanding of other countries.

Fabián Campos A.
9/12/2011 09:30:29 pm

International trade and capital mobility are the channels, through which Globalization has been trying to integrate countries. However, inequity in countries is increasing and rich countries are accumulating more capital. In my opinion, the consequence of that is the named “cold war”, through which power and political groups are trying to homogenize the World without respect to others. In fact, this “cold war” is only giving the World a false harmony because behind this vision the division and the power struggle continue. In effect, Homogenization constitutes the better weapon of war for destroying identity and having power.

For these reasons, education plays an important role, and globalization is increasing its importance because education promotes a worldwide attitude with the help of cheaper transportation and communication. However, education should maintain “local knowledge” because each local and national community constitutes a unique richness in the World. Also, education is the better way for increasing human and material capital, which is in the service of humanity. In fact, educational quality should be addressed to build a better humanity, in which different cultures can live together in real harmony with their own values.

Ana Daniela Naranjo
9/12/2011 11:40:37 pm

Globalization is a process that integrates the entire world not only economically but culturally, technologically, socially. We cannot understand globalization without joining different aspects that are very important to become a global citizen and understand the real consequences and implications of globalization.
We are living a new era, after the cold war when the world was divided in two political and economic ideologies; we are living a new international system, globalization. People identities have changed. We can draw the new map like a world divided by civilizations. We are integrated but we also have conflicts between these civilizations. The conflicts won’t finish if we don’t change the way how we educate people to respect other cultures and to integrate different dimensions like technology, culture, politics, economic and social aspects. Every difference that can exist in economic or politic aspects between countries is a difference between cultures. Globalization means integration, connection, homogenizing like dominate culture, computerization, speed, competition, rapid change. The most important in my opinion to understand globalization is to follow the first speed in arbitrage, having a wide net of information, to be a globalist and understand that everything is interconnected.
We must talk about education. It is true that globalization and the creation of a global market have helped countries to become more developing and industrialized but we must be aware about social development and the welfare of people. Countries that get worried about education can have a better economic situation. The role of education in promoting sustainable development, good health and environmental protection is indispensable. Educational differences exacerbate the economic differences between countries. We must assure not only primary education because it is insufficiently in today’s world. Also, we must increase access to education but also we must take care of the quality of this education.

Anna Breymann
9/13/2011 11:05:10 am

Like the last reading, too, showed, education and knowledge are the most important things to create a world that has more or less the same standard. That poorer countries invest more in proper education in order to make their people aware of health issues, improving women's status and to support their economy. Countries becoming more integrated via movements of goods, capital, labour, and ideas - this process is called globalization. Nowadays it is easier for a lot of countries to import and export faster and cheaper due to lowered tariffs or trade agreements, for instance. With all this though, the inequality between countries is rising, enlarging the gap between the poor and the rich. Therefore it is neccessary to tackle poverty and inequality from the grass roots by educating people. A very important sentence to me is "By 2015, the goal promises, all children everywhere will be able to complete a full course of primary education". I wonder if this will become true. In my opinion this would be a big step in a new future. Another very interesting sentence of the paper is "Unless we hate what we are not, we cannot love what we are." This sentence made me think a long time and I came to the conclusion that there is a truth behind it. We need to know what there is that we don't like in order to find out what we like or whether we like ourselves.
The differences between the post-Cold War World and Globalization are obvious. Not all has changed to the better, a worldwide harmony never came about, but the world has moved into a dynamic on-going process, faster, cheaper and deeper than ever before, especially by the help of the Internet.
To understand what is happening in the world it is important to not only think straight, but to question things. The author of the last part mentioned six dimensions, which were: politics, culture, nacional security/ balance of power, financial markets, technology and environment. Only by regarding all of these aspects it is possible to become a globalist. And becoming a globalist can only happen with the right education.

Fanny Salazar
9/13/2011 12:02:35 pm

In a globalised world, to have different perspectives in order to understand important events of the world, and to use simple stories to talk about this facts are important requirements. This is the reason why people need to be educated; we have to have a cultural , political, economical and open minded perspectives. Education is the main tool by which people can achieve full understanding of what is going on, to comprehend understand different ideologies and customs and to understand that differences makes us beautiful and unique. Therefore, education has to be universal and has to reach a high quality level. But Education has not only to reach high standards of excellence but has to be universal too; this can be reached through technological devices and better technology like the internet. This kind of tools can also implement an interchange among different countries and cultures. World keeps on changing every minute, and despite the fact that better geopolitical situations have created actual borders between countries, today we are interconnected more than ever, we are unified by the internet.

It’s impressive and surprising to know how the world has been transformed from a Cold War system into a globalized system one that has different rules to the previews one. From conflicts between communism and capitalism to the prevalence of free market capitalism, characterized by a process of “creative destruction” and speed of commerce, communication, transportation and innovation, that sadly represents money to few and poverty to many. In addition to this, globalization also brings with it Americanization and homogenization. In my opinion, this represents a danger to the different cultures and to the different colors that characterized our world; single color wouldn’t be attractive at all.

9/20/2011 02:14:11 am


Pablo Veloz
9/20/2011 02:48:48 am

People often behave in the way they were educated, for instance if someone has learned that standing up from table ever since a woman arrives is a sign of respect during lunch time, then the entire society would adopt a common thought of what is respect when eating. There is often a natural way of acting and; usually people seek for tools and strategies for doing things correctly within a society. But the mindset is much more useful because once you understand a mindset, once you develop a way of thinking, there is no limit to the tools and strategies you can develop yourself. This is the core of an internationally minded person. He/she values differences from cultures; enhance learning by making productive use of the diversity of perspectives, stands for differences between national and international social behaviors. Learning to be an internationally minded person involves open communication, free express of ideas attitudes and feelings in a safe and secure environment based on understanding and respect of differences among cultures, countries, and regions. Therefore, the natural tendency for socializing of mankind is linked to a fully understand of what others’ view is constructed and developed. Finally the current phenomena of globalization encourages us all to switch to an international mind based on taking advantage of new knowledge and views from overseas on subjects molding culture performance.

Pablo Veloz
9/20/2011 03:43:57 am

Globalization is associated with territory, according to which a growing variety of social activities takes place irrespective of the geographical location of participants. Global events can occur almost simultaneously anywhere and everywhere in the world due to telecommunication, digital computers and audiovisual media. The Internet allows people to communicate instantaneously with each other regardless vast geographical distances separating them. However, globalization is linked to the growth of social interconnections across existing geographical and political boundaries since the majority of human activities is still tied to a concrete geographical location or spaces, the more decisive aspect of globalization concerns the manner in which distant events and forces impact on local and regional individuals.
Globalization also includes a reference to the speed of social activity. The linking together and expanding of social activities across borders is carried in the possibility of movements of people, and extremely fast flow of information, capital, and goods. Without these, it would be difficult to see how distant events influence every piece of human congregation and societies as it receives now. High-speed technology plays an important role in the velocity of human activity, globalization can be linked directly to the emergence of new high-speed technologies that tend to minimize the significance of distance and intensify possibilities social interconnectedness.
Even though causal events also integrate the emerging of globalization, it can be agreed that globalization should be conceived as a long-term process. Globalization should be understood as a divided process, since social interconnectedness, and arise of new technology manifest in many different arenas of social activity such as economic, political, and cultural. Although each feature of globalization is linked to the core component of globalization, “EDUCATION” consisting of a complex and relatively autonomous series of developments, requiring careful examination in order to acquire the wisdom to interact with the phenomena. For instance, the way of analyzing events happening throughout the world are surely interconnected and must be linked to the globalization weight in international dealings and systems.

9/20/2011 04:52:47 am

It´s sounds weird but sadly human been learns a while after things happen, and Friedman in his The Lexus and the Olive Tree essay wrote a very interesting phrase about it: “it took a long time for leaders and analysts to grasp the nature of the Cold War System and it would be no different with globalization system except that it make take us longer to get our minds around it (…) “
It’s not easy to fully understand what globalization is, especially because it is changing every moment; consequently, we need more than knowledge to interiorize this concept, we need to be aware about the new world order. In this so called “new age” the answer is not only school education, is not only about history or mathematics, for me is to be conscious of the components of the world, to be conscious that we are a little tree in a huge rain forest. What I mean is that hundreds of costumes and cultures are around us and we have to be aware and understand that people are different and thus have respect for each other.
“Strong educational system: can help create a deep pool of sources…it has powerful effects on human development”
Education is an important tool to develop a country, however not all the countries invest on this powerful resource.

Kathy Agurto
9/29/2011 10:11:03 am


Here I post two videos with discriminatory cases:

1.- Context: At 1am I merged on to the hi-way from the far left lane. Entering the hi-way, I yielded to a trooper that was already on the hi-way and directly to my right. We looked at each other straight in the eye as I pulled directly behind him. Then I took the 1st exit to go home, which was less than I mile from where I entered. Approximately 3 miles from where I exited, I was surprised to see him again and he pulled me over. Upon approaching my car he said he stopped me for speeding; however, he didn't have radar or pace me. Ultimately, he arrested me for DUI. In his report he wrote I was "unruly, swaying and he paced me". Twice in the video he admits to not ever being behind me. My true crime was that I was a Black man driving on the hi-way at 1am.

1.- http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Mc-borUONCU

2.- The arrest of a black professor from Harvard by a white police officer has sparked debate in the United States over relations between members of minority groups and the police. Sergeant James Crowley said the professor was belligerent. Professor Henry Louis Gates said he was a victim of racial profiling, and was arrested for his skin color not his actions. U.S. President Barack Obama, the first African-American to hold that office, has invited the two men to the White House for an informal meeting Thursday intended to ease racial tensions. VOA's Chris Simkins has more on "racial profiling."

2.- http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_Sl_5IiECqw&feature=related

Karen Garzón Sherdek
9/29/2011 12:07:09 pm

"Case On-line about a racist/discriminatory act"

Philadelphia workers file racial discrimination case

July 31, 2009|By Edmund DeMarche and Chloe Melas (CNN)

Black employees at a Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, waste transfer plant were harassed, humiliated and discriminated against by their supervisor for decades, says an attorney representing two workers who filed a complaint against the city.
Among the allegations in the complaint is that for decades, John Gill, the Northwest Transfer Station's superintendent, limited one restroom to whites only, said the attorney, Howard K. Trubman. The restroom -- which he called the "supervisors' bathroom" -- was supposedly for the sole use of upper-level officials with the city's Streets Department, Trubman said.
As far back as 1996, it became apparent to black employees that they were being slighted, said Trubman. They would watch white co-workers walk into the segregated bathroom, conveniently located one floor above Gill's office.
"If you tried to use the bathroom, you might get suspended," said Leslie Young, a former worker at the facility. Young, along with Gibson Trowery, who still works at the station, filed a complaint with the Pennsylvania Human Relations Commission in October 2007.
Young said he recalled that a lock was placed on the restroom door, with keys distributed only to white workers.
The restroom black workers could use was down five flights of stairs and was "not in the greatest condition," Trubman said. Some employees were forced to ask Gill's permission before they could make the trip, he said.
"It was very degrading and humiliating," said Young. "I saw it wreck peoples' home lives -- picking on you for nothing."
Gill, asked for comment Friday, referred CNN to his lawyers, saying, "If you want to write a fair story, wait for after the trial to finish writing it."
The city solicitor's office, which is defending the case, said, "We don't comment on allegations. ... Based on what we know, we have no reason to believe there is any merit, and that will come clear as the litigation proceeds."
Because the human relations commission was unable to resolve the complaint within a year, Young and Trowery had the option of filing the complaint in the Philadelphia Court of Common Pleas, which they did.
In May, a Philadelphia judge dismissed a separate suit against Gill, leaving the complaint filed against the city intact.
Trubman said they are seeking Gill's dismissal and monetary damages. He expects a trial to begin by next summer.
The issue didn't end with the bathroom at the facility, which is a transfer station where garbage trucks bring citywide waste to be distributed to various landfills.
Black employees complained that they were stuck with the oldest garbage trucks. Whites, they say, were frequently upgraded to newer vehicles.
"Gill would hide the white drivers' keys and pretend that he didn't know where they were," Trowery said. "But I saw him keep the keys in his drawer."
According to Young, in the sweltering summer of 2007, Gill would only allow whites access to a water cooler kept in his barricaded office. Black employees were forced to use a water fountain elsewhere in the building.
"It made me feel like less of a man," said Young. "But I got kids, I got a mortgage. I'm a trash man. I have no college degree -- not too many places I'm going to get a job."
Young said he was a shop steward in 2006 and 2007. It was his job to inform Gill about unhappy workers, he said.
When he told Gill about some resentment felt by some of the employees, he said, Gill launched into a diatribe, saying those unhappy at "the Northwest Plantation Station" could leave.
"As a man I would have put my elbow down his throat," said Young. "You're not going to talk to me like that."
Another former employee at the facility, Walter Bingham, who worked there five years, said that every year on December 31 white workers would be allowed to schedule their vacation times for the coming year, leaving black employees with limited choices.
The problems persisted for more than a decade, Trubman contends. Black workers, led by Young, began to document instances of discrimination in 1999, he said.
"We spent most of our day calming each other down," Young said. "We had people running to his office. [But] everybody has homes and pensions and kids."
Tension between white and black workers ran deep, Young said; the two groups would stick to themselves and hardly spoke.

Source: http://articles.cnn.com/2009-07-31/us/pennsylvania.workers.racism_1_garbage-trucks-complaint-white-workers?_s=PM:US

Fanny Salazar
9/30/2011 08:15:26 am

Born into Slavery

Mariama Oumarou is still a young woman but for most of her life she worked as a slave. Her story of descent-based enslavement is common in Niger and other parts of the world.

Mariama belongs to Niger’s “Black Touareg” community. Generations ago Africans were enslaved by the Touaregs and the descendants of those original slaves still describe themselves as “Black Touregs”.

Mariama, her mother and grandmother all belonged to the same man, referred to by Mariama as her “master”. From a very young age, Mariama worked as a domestic, herded the goats, gathered wood for the cooking, prepared food for the family and cleaned the house.

“For years, I thought that this family was mine. But as I grew older, I realised that the tasks I was entrusted with were different from the tasks of other girls of my age. I was treated differently, slept in different places and was regularly insulted and beaten.”

Still a teenager, Mariama was sold by her “master” to a man who already had four wives. As a “Wahaya” or slave wife, Mariama became both a domestic and sex slave.

She was just 17 when the Timidria Association managed to negotiate her release in 2001. Established in 1991, Timidria is a non-governmental organisation which fights against slavery.

Timidria and Anti-Slavery International estimate 43 thousand people remain enslaved in Niger. This is despite the abolition of slavery in 1960, its prohibition in 1999 and its being made a crime in 2003.

Immediately after her release in 2001, Mariama expressed a desire to learn to read and write. Eight years on that ambition remains a dream. She told her audience during the Durban Review Conference she cannot afford to go to school. Adult education is expensive. Mariama makes a living weaving carpets which are sold at the local market for the equivalent of US fifty cents each.

Mariama told her story of enslavement to the international community in 2001 at the World Conference Against Racism in Durban and then again recently at the Review Conference in Geneva.

She continues to speak out so as she says, “each victim of slavery can regain freedom and enjoy life.”

Last year, the Human Rights Council appointed the Special Rapporteur, Ms. Gulnara Shahinian on contemporary forms of slavery, its causes and consequences. Ms Shahinian says, “Stronger political will from Governments is needed to introduce respective changes in national legislation, enforce the laws and develop sustainable programs that would include education for law enforcement officials, fight against corruption, provide economic opportunities and where necessary compensation or rehabilitation for those who have suffered from slavery.”

The Outcome Document of the Durban Review Conference recognised that victims of slavery are particularly vulnerable to all forms of racism with women and girls being particularly at risk. The document stresses that contemporary forms and manifestations of slavery need to be investigated by different stakeholders and given greater prominence and priority to eradicate these practices once and for all.

15 June 2009

Source:UNITED NATIONS HUMAN RIGHTS http://www.ohchr.org/EN/NewsEvents/Pages/BornintoSlavery.aspx

Fanny Salazar
9/30/2011 08:27:02 am

Bringing a case against racial profiling
It was on their way back from a funeral 17 years ago that Robert Wilkins, an African American lawyer based in Washington, and his family were stopped by police on a motorway in Maryland in United States.

Speaking at an event on the sidelines of the Durban Review Conference - “Voices – Everyone affected by racism has a story that should be heard”, Wilkins said he would never forget that morning of May 1992. He was asked by police officers to stand in the rain while his car was being searched by a narcotics dog and motorway users watched the scene as they drove past.

Wilkins had rented a car to go to Chicago overnight. This detail may seem insignificant but, as Robert Wilkins later uncovered, it was one of the police’s primary reason for stopping the car. He also believed they had been the victims of racial profiling, a practice that still persists in law enforcement today.

Racial profiling is defined by the Durban Declaration and Programme of Action as “the practice of police and other law enforcement officers relying, to any degree, on race, colour, descent or national or ethnic origin as the basis for subjecting persons to investigatory activities or for determining whether an individual is engaged in criminal activity.” It is in essence a practice contrary to internationally recognised human rights norms and standards.

Racial profiling has proven to be an issue in the current political context because of its role in anti-terrorism measures. Special Rapporteur on the promotion and protection of human rights while countering terrorism, Martin Scheinin noted that since 11 September 2001 law-enforcement authorities across the globe have adopted measures based on “terrorist profiles” which include characteristics such as race, ethnicity, national origin or religion.

The issue of profiling was addressed at the Durban Review Conference and mentioned in the Conference’s Outcome Document.

At “Voices”, Wilkins recalled a police officer telling his cousin who was driving the car that he had “paced him” driving 60 miles per hour in a 40 miles per hour zone. The officer then took his driver’s licence and the rental car contract and returned to his police car. He returned a short while later and requested to search the car.

“I told the officer that we did not consent to him searching anything and that my understanding of the law was that he could not search our car unless he was arresting my cousin and was making a search incident to that arrest”, Wilkins recounted. He added that the officer informed him that such searches were routine and that there had been problems with rental cars on the motorway with drugs.

Wilkins offered to provide proof he was indeed returning from a funeral and not engaging in criminal activity. But the policeman insisted on bringing a dog to the scene.

The Wilkins eventually reluctantly agreed to the search. “It is hard to describe the frustration and pain you feel when people presume you to be guilty for no good reason and you know that you are innocent.”

Robert Wilkins and his family felt humiliated by the experience. They decided to sue the State of Maryland to seek justice and also to set a precedent which would stop such practices. It was at the beginning of the legal process that Wilkins received the Maryland State Police’s “Criminal Intelligence Report”, a document he described as a racial profile.

“The Criminal Intelligence Report discussed the crack cocaine problem in the Cumberland, Maryland area, and recklessly and indiscriminately advised state troopers that the traffickers “were predominately black males and females” and that these dangerous armed traffickers generally travelled early in the morning or late at night along Interstate 68, and that they favoured rental cars with Virginia registration. Well, we fit the profile to a tee.”

In court, Wilkins’ lawyers overturned the report, proving that profiles were irrelevant when controlling motorway drug trafficking. It appeared that drugs were found in all types of vehicles driven by people of all races and age.

The Wilkins eventually won their court case in 1995 with a financial settlement of US96,000 dollars. Among other provisions reached through the settlement were the prohibition of the use of race-based drug courier profiles as law enforcement tools and the training of officers on the new policy.

This landmark victory was tempered with reports of old habits enduring. In fact Wilkins said that another court ruling was made in 2003 in an attempt to ensure full implementation of the 1995 decision. “I still hear about troubling incidents on the highways in Maryland, including reports from African American motorists about illegal stops, searches of cars, and even strip searches by police”, Robert Wilkins said. &l

Fanny Salazar
9/30/2011 08:39:33 am

(continues)“Almost 100 official complaints have been filed since 2003, but the Maryland State Police has never found a single one of those complaints to be sustained.”

Seventeen years after the incident with the police, he still wonders how much progress has been made to fight racial discrimination and whether legislation in America is strong enough to foster change.

“Racial profiling has taken a critical turn after September 11. Before that date, there was more acknowledgement that racial profiling had no appropriate role in law enforcement. After September 11, they started backing off on some of those statements.”

29 May, 2009
Source:UNITED NATIONS HUMAN RIGHTS;http://www.ohchr.org/EN/NEWSEVENTS/Pages/Bringingacaseagainstracialprofiling.aspx

9/30/2011 02:15:13 pm

Death of Stephen Lawrence
Stephen Lawrence, a black British teenager (13 September 1974 – 22 April 1993) from Eltham, southeast London, was stabbed to death while waiting for a bus on the evening of 22 April 1993.
After the initial investigation, five suspects were arrested but never convicted. It was suggested during the course of investigation that the murder had a racist motive and that Lawrence was killed because he was black, and that the handling of the case by the police and Crown Prosecution Service was affected by issues of race leading to an inquiry.
In 1999, an inquiry headed by Sir William Macpherson examined the original Metropolitan police investigation and concluded that the force was "institutionally racist" and has been called 'one of the most important moments in the modern history of criminal justice in Britain'. The report of the examination's work and conclusions was published in 1999 as The Macpherson Report.
On 18 May 2011, it was announced that one of the original suspects, and another man, are to stand trial for the murder.

The attack occurred at 10:35 pm on 22 April 1993, as Lawrence waited with a friend, Duwayne Brooks, at a bus stop in southeast London.
As Brooks called out to ask whether Lawrence saw the bus coming he claimed that he heard one of Lawrence's assailants saying: "What, what, nigger?" as they all quickly crossed the road and 'engulfed' Lawrence, who was then stabbed to a depth of about five inches on both sides of the front of his body, in the chest and arm. Both stab wounds severed axillary arteries. Although he tried to escape, he collapsed and bled to death after running 119 meters (130 yards).
“ It is surprising that he managed to get 130 yards with all the injuries he had, but also the fact that the deep penetrating wound of the right side caused the upper lobe to partially collapse his lung. It is therefore a testimony to Stephen's physical fitness that he was able to run the distance he did before collapsing. – Pathologist, Dr Shepherd. ”

All three witnesses at the bus stop at the time of the attack said in statements that the attack was sudden and short; none were later able to identify any of the suspects.
In February 1999, officers who were investigating the handling of the initial inquiry revealed that a woman had telephoned detectives three times within the first few days after the killing.
In 2004, the police stated: "The witness who appeared on the right of the scene and walked into Rochester Way with Stephen and Duwayne behind is very important to us. We know who this witness is, she knows who she is, and we know what she knows. She has never made a statement. This witness may have been the catalyst for the attack".
A case was brought against two of the suspects, Neil Acourt, then 17, and Luke Knight, who was 16, who were initially charged with murder but the Crown Prosecution Service dropped the case on 29 July 1993, citing insufficient evidence.

Private prosecution
In April 1994, Stephen Lawrence's family initiated a private prosecution against the initial two suspects and three others. The family was not entitled to legal aid and a fighting fund was established to pay for the analysis of forensic evidence and the cost of tracing and re-interviewing witnesses. The family was represented by counsel Michael Mansfield QC, Martin Soorjoo and Margo Boye who acted on an unpaid basis. The charges against the original two suspects were dropped before the trial due to lack of evidence, and the three remaining suspects were acquitted at trial when the judge ruled that the identification evidence given by Duwayne Brooks was inadmissible. Another man, named by the police only as "Phil" was also questioned at this stage.

New evidence
No one has been convicted of Lawrence's murder. In November 2007, police confirmed that they were investigating new forensic evidence. Gary Dobson and David Norris were arrested in September 2010, and in May 2011 it was announced they are due to face trial, accused of killing Stephen Lawrence

Public inquiries into the police investigation
In 1997, Lawrence's family registered a formal complaint with the Police Complaints Authority, which in 1999 exonerated the officers who had worked on the case of allegations of racism. Only one officer, Detective Inspector Ben Bullock, was ordered to face disciplinary charges for neglect of duty. Bullock, who was second in command of the investigation, was later found guilty of failure to properly brief officers and failure to fully investigate an anonymous letter sent to police, but he was acquitted of 11 other charges. Four other officers who would have been charged as a result of the inquiry retired before it concluded.
Bullock retired the day after his punishment was announced, so that it amounted to a mere caution. Neville Lawrence, Stephen's father, criticized the punishment, saying that Bullock was "guilty on all counts." However, a spokes

Vanessa Vernaza
10/1/2011 04:46:06 am

The case i found is taken from the Times (May 5th,2010) and is called:

US discrimination case between Betty Dukes and Wal-Mart reaches Supreme Court

Nico Hines in Washington

A 60-year-old “greeter” from Wal-Mart is at the centre of the largest sex-discrimination lawsuit in American history — a battle that has become known as “Betty versus Goliath” and is about to reach the country’s highest court.

Betty Dukes alleges that Wal-Mart, which owns Asda in Britain, systematically pays women less than men, and promotes men to higher positions at a faster rate.

The class action will list a series of breaches of the 1964 Civil Rights Act, which made it illegal for employers to discriminate on the basis of race or gender. If Wal-Mart is found to have broken the law, compensation payouts could be worth billions of dollars.

Theodore J. Boutrous Jr, the company’s lead lawyer, told The Times yesterday that the next stage of the nine-year dispute will be played out before the Supreme Court — the company’s last chance to argue that Mrs Dukes’s grievances should not be expanded into a broader case on behalf of an estimated one million current and former women employees. Mrs Dukes, a Baptist minister, said: “In this life, you have to stand up or be trampled.” After the 9th Circuit US Court of Appeals ruled in favour of the case progressing last week, she said that she was not deterred by the biblical scale of her battle. “David had five stones, but only needed one,” she said.

The quest began six years after Mrs Dukes took a $5-an-hour job on the Wal-Mart tills in 1994. She said that she had planned to work hard and advance through the company until she reached management. By 1999 that prospect had been destroyed. A dispute with managers over her chances of advancement ended in a humiliating demotion and pay cut, she said. A lawyer told her that she was not alone in claiming that she had encountered discrimination, and in 2001 the lawsuit was filed in San Francisco. The part-time preacher still works at Wal-Mart, and lives with her mother because, she says, she cannot afford a home of her own on her $15.23 (£9.98) an hour salary. “There are times that I can’t afford my lunch,” she said, wrapping her chicken nuggets in a napkin for later. “But I’m still blessed.”

The global retailer denies accusations of inequality and argues that if there are any instances of discrimination they are isolated, and not a company-wide problem. Wal-Mart says any such cases should be handled as individual lawsuits, not as a class action.

Mr Boutros said that the precedent would allow a wave of similar class actions to sweep US businesses. “We are going to ask the Supreme Court to review the case,” he told The Times. “The ruling really creates a class-action trap. The standards have been so diluted and make class action so much easier.” Even if the judges agree, no verdict would be expected until the summer of next year.

Source: http://www.timesonline.co.uk/tol/news/world/us_and_americas/article7116313.ece

I also found a video in which and expert talks about how a decision taken by the 9th court will affect the way on which walmart will have to act in acordance with this case. If it is a case representing all of the women working in walmart nowadays and even in past years, or if it is an especific case that just happened with Betty Dukes and some other women.

This video is found in Youtube: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=pIA6HnWxdNM

Finally I read an article on a blog of an organization called AAUW (American Association of University Women ) in which they talk about the final decision made by the court which was not to treat the case as a class action, leaving each woman to file her claim individually or perhaps in smaller, reformulated class-action groups.

Source: http://blog-aauw.org/2011/06/20/disappointed-in-wal-mart/

Andrea Valarezo
10/1/2011 05:41:16 am

Case about racism published in Foxnews.com on March 2011

Illinois Discrimination Case Raises Questions About Religion and the Workplace

Is it a case of legitimate discrimination? Or a Justice Department out of control? Those are two of the questions surrounding the case of Safoorah Khan, a 29-year-old math teacher and devout Muslim who, until December of 2007, taught at the MacArthur Middle School in Berkeley, Ill.
In mid-August of that year, Khan notified her employer that she wanted three weeks of unpaid leave in December to attend the Hajj, the Muslim pilgrimage to Mecca.

It happened to fall that year just prior to her students' final exams and the school district said no, leading Khan to resign. She took her case to the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission, which ruled in her favor and referred the case to the Department of Justice.
Last December, DOJ filed suit against the Berkeley, Ill., School Board in federal court in Chicago, claiming it violated Title Seven of the 1964 Civil Rights Act. The act prohibits an employer from discriminating on the basis of race, color, sex, national origin or religion.
Assistant Attorney General for Civil Rights Thomas Perez said in a recent interview that Khan's request to attend the Hajj was a "profoundly personal request by a person of faith."
But former Bush-era DOJ Civil Rights Division lawyer Hans von Spakovsky disagrees.
"The Justice Department is using its power and law to push frankly extreme cultural and other views that the ordinary American person does not agree with," Spakovsky said.
There is legal and federal regulatory precedence to support Khan's case. Federal rules require an employer to provide reasonable accommodations for the religious practices of employees unless doing so would result in "undue hardship" on the conduct of its business.
In 1977, the Supreme Court ruled in TWA v. Hardison that it is an "undue hardship" if the employer has to bear more than a "de minimus cost" [minimal cost] in order to provide the accommodation.
Given Khan's contention that she asked for an unpaid leave - not a paid leave - her employer incurred no cost and thus no "undue hardship."
But a key question is whether the court can factor into the definition of "undue hardship" the effect of her prolonged absence on students, and on staffing issues at MacArthur Middle School.
Constitutional scholar Eugene Volokh of UCLA's School of Law says Khan's case is not unique in American history.
"In one form or another this has been claimed by certain Christian denominations, by Jews and by others. Muslims are claiming the same kinds of rights that other religious groups have," he said.
But in a broader context, the case raises uncomfortable questions. When do special accommodations for religious and cultural minorities become paralyzing exceptions? Does three weeks off for Hajj open the doors for Christians to spend three weeks at a retreat? Or Wiccans at a festival? Atheists at a convention?
In recent weeks, the prime minister of England, the president of France and the chancellor of Germany all made remarkable statements to the effect that multiculturalism has been a failure in their respective countries. Each offered a stunning admission that Muslims had not assimilated into the larger Western culture.
In those cases, attempts at cultural accommodation proved to be cultural Balkanization. Some wonder if it's beginning to happen in the United States.

Read more: http://www.foxnews.com/politics/2011/03/29/illinois-discrimination-case-raises-questions-religion-workplace/#ixzz1ZYowukG8

Kathy Agurto and Karen Garzón S.
10/1/2011 06:10:28 am


Kenneth J. Arrow, from the Harvard University indicates in his book “The Theory of Discrimination”, that although not all forms of social exclusion derive from discrimination, all forms of discrimination lead to exclusionary behavior. There are different types of discrimination, such as age, disability, national origin, religion, sex, race, and others. In order to fight these exclusionary behaviors, there are different movements to protect people´s rights. When we talk about movements it symbolically means that there is a group behind working to achieve different goals and to make a change. We want to specifically talk about feminism that is a movement for social, cultural, political and economic equality of men and women.

Feminism is a term that was born long after women started questioning their inferior status and demanding an equality in the social position. Even after the word feminism was emerged, it was still not adopted as a term of identification by many of those who campaigned for women’s rights. Even many of the women’s rights organizations in the late 1960s and early 1970s did not call themselves feminist. The term feminism had a restricted use in relation to specific concerns and specific groups (Delmar 1986). It is only more recently that the label feminist has been applied to all women’s rights groups indiscriminately, and this non-coincidence between these groups’ self-identification and subsequent labeling as feminist clearly relates to the problem of what criteria is going to be used in deciding whether a person, group or action is “feminist”. (FREEDMAN, Jane, Concept in the Social Sciences Feminism, 2001). We can see in our daily activities that society thinks that women are very weak and cannot handle their own battles. Men are seeing as the only ones that can make force labor, and that’s not true at all. There are lots of Ecuadorian woman working in constructions, carrying a lot of weight, handling with lots of pressure, etc. We can handle our own battles but society underestimates the power of women.

In the feminist movement, there are advantages and disadvantages, action and emotion, use and control, identity and meaning and also female and male and feminine and masculine. It reproduces and produces new challenges, what it have done is modified the gender differences, creating new ones and developing the old ones. As a consequence of feminism, there is an inclusion for women in the society, playing roles that before were thought only for men. Women have been scaling positions in our daily activities getting involved in politics, economics, business environment and others. Nevertheless we can see that however women have achieved some of their goals; there is still discrimination in the world society. A clear example of it is at work, when men think that they have to make more money than women, or that having a woman as a boss is “degrading” (POLLOK, Ellen, Wall Street Journal, 2000). Also we can see every day how women are used as objects for selling things in publicity in a very sexual way. We are not sexual objects that can be sold; we have been proving that we can do much more than that.

We think that the global struggle for gender equality and the end of gender based discriminatory practices against women are bonding women from all over the world in their fight. Though they may be working for issues, specific to their cultural and social settings, but they are united in the philosophy of achieving equality of women in every sphere of life. Further we need to agree that the definition of feminism may differ for every individual based on her experience in life. Two different women may come together to campaign for feminism entirely based on their own reasons influenced by the practical experiences of their specific lives (BENN, Hilary, Gender Equality, 2007).

Sabitre Paspuel
10/1/2011 09:25:12 pm

In recent years, women have become more vigilant about reporting alleged discrimination.1 In 1992, 3,385 people filed complaints of pregnancy discrimination with the EEOC. By 2007, that number jumped to 5,587.2

Last year, the EEOC filed suit against Bloomberg, LP, the financial news service, in a class action that now includes 72 current and former employees who became pregnant while working at the company. The suit was originally started when three women brought allegations of pregnancy discrimination to the attention of the EEOC. The EEOC investigated the claims and found that women in the company “lost momentum” after becoming pregnant and were subsequently “transferred, displaced, and/or demoted.”

Following this investigation, the EEOC filed suit, alleging that Bloomberg engaged in a pattern of reducing women’s pay after they announced their pregnancies or returned from maternity leave. Additionally, some women claimed that they were replaced by junior male counterparts, purposely excluded from management meetings, and subjected to stereotypes concerning their ability to perform their jobs because of family responsibilities. These included receiving comments such as “You are not committed” and “You do not want to be here” after returning from maternity leave.

Discovery in the case is ongoing and is expected to last through June 2009. Approximately 150 to 200 depositions will be taken in the case, including that of founder Michael Bloomberg who, while not a named party in the case, retains controlling shares of the company.

Doe v. C.A.R.S. Protection Plus, Inc., 527 F.3d 358 (Pa. 2008).

Jane Doe was hired as a graphic artist for C.A.R.S. in the summer of 1999. In May 2000, Doe learned that she was pregnant and informed her employer, Fred Kohl. A few months later, after a series of tests revealed severe abnormalities with the fetus, Doe’s physician recommended that the pregnancy be terminated. Doe and her husband agreed.

According to Doe’s husband, he called the company every day during the testing and diagnosis process and received approval from Kohl for Doe’s absence. The day before the abortion, Doe’s husband called Kohl and informed him that the pregnancy was scheduled to be terminated the following day and requested that Doe be granted a week’s vacation following the abortion. Doe’s husband testified that Kohl granted this request.

Following the abortion, a funeral was planned and held for Doe’s baby. That same day, Kohl packed up Doe’s office and informed her that she had been terminated from the office.

There was evidence presented that C.A.R.S. had a policy that required employees to call in and gain approval for absences every day that the absence was required. However, evidence also showed that male employees with disabilities were not routinely held to this standard. Testimony was also presented showing that Kohl had made disapproving statements regarding Doe’s decision to obtain an abortion.

Doe brought suit in federal court, and summary judgment was granted to C.A.R.S. Doe appealed to the 3rd Circuit, which reversed the judgment. While the court noted that this was not a typical claim under the Pregnancy Discrimination Act, they found for Doe, holding that the plain language of the PDA “together with the legislative history and EEOC guidelines, support a conclusion that an employee may not discriminate against a woman employee because she has exercised her right to have an abortion.”

Hulteen v. AT&T Corp., 498 F.3d 1001 (Cal. 2007)(en banc)

For over a hundred years, AT&T offered employee benefits based on a “Net Credit Service” (NCS), which was calculated from an employee’s hire date and then adjusted forward for any time that an employee was not working and thus not earning credit.

Before 1977, employees who took pregnancy leave were granted a maximum of 30 days of leave before their NCS date was adjusted forward for any additional time used. During this same period, employees on regular temporary disability leave had no such limits on the number of days they could use before credit was removed.

The women who filed suit against AT&T were employees who took pregnancy leave before the 1977 Pregnancy Discrimination Amendment to Title VII. Collectively, they argued that the pensions they received after retiring were smaller because of AT&T’s failure to provide them with full credit for pregnancy leave taken before the effective date of the PDA, in violation of Title VII. The 9th Circuit Court held that, although the initial act of discrimination — disallowing pregnancy leave to be treated in a manner similar to other temporary disabilities — occurred before the passage of the PDA, the act of calculating the plaintiffs’ retirement benefits according to the adjusted NCS date was discriminatory because it deprived them of be

Sabitre Paspuel
10/1/2011 09:29:35 pm


because it deprived them of benefits received by those not affected by pregnancy.

AT&T filed a writ of certiorari to the United States Supreme Court, which was ultimately granted. Oral arguments were heard on this issue in December 2008.

and the last one is Lehman v. Kohl’s Department Store

Teresa Lehman was an employee for Kohl’s Department Store for approximately 10 years as an assistant manager. Despite her supervisors’ assurances that she was among the top candidates for a promotion, she was repeatedly passed over. Five store manager positions were given to less-experienced and less-qualified men within a two-month period, as well as to women with no children or to women who assured their bosses they would have no more children.

On occasion, one of Lehman’s supervisors allegedly asked her, “You’re not going to get pregnant again, are you?” “Did you get your tubes tied?” and “Are you breastfeeding?” Lehman alleged that Kohl’s failure to promote her was punishment for her becoming pregnant. The jury agreed and awarded her $2.1 million.

Source: http://www.aauw.org/act/laf/library/PDAcases.cfm

Caro Seaman
10/2/2011 03:15:21 am

U.S. Supreme Court
LOVING v. VIRGINIA, 388 U.S. 1 (1967)
Argued April 10, 1967.
Decided June 12, 1967.

Virginia's statutory scheme to prevent marriages between persons solely on the basis of racial classifications held to violate the Equal Protection and Due Process Clauses of the Fourteenth Amendment.

This case presents a constitutional question never addressed by this Court: whether a statutory scheme adopted by the State of Virginia to prevent marriages between persons solely on the basis of racial classifications violates the Equal Protection and Due Process Clauses of the Fourteenth Amendment. For reasons which seem to us to reflect the central meaning of those constitutional commands, we conclude that these statutes cannot stand consistently with the Fourteenth Amendment.

In June 1958, two residents of Virginia, Mildred Jeter, a Negro woman, and Richard Loving, a white man, were married in the District of Columbia pursuant to its laws. Shortly after their marriage, the Lovings returned to Virginia and established their marital abode in Caroline County. At the October Term, 1958, of the Circuit Court of Caroline County, a grand jury issued an indictment charging the Lovings with violating Virginia's ban on interracial marriages. On January 6, 1959, the Lovings pleaded guilty to the charge and were sentenced to one year in jail; however, the trial judge suspended the sentence for a period of 25 years on the condition that the Lovings leave the State and not return to Virginia together for 25 years. He stated in an opinion that:

"Almighty God created the races white, black, yellow, malay and red, and he placed them on separate continents. And but for the interference with his arrangement there would be no cause for such marriages. The fact that he separated the races shows that he did not intend for the races to mix."
Other central provisions in the Virginia statutory scheme are 20-57, which automatically voids all marriages between "a white person and a colored person" without any judicial proceeding, 3 and 20-54 and 1-14 which, respectively, define "white persons" and "colored persons and Indians" for purposes of the statutory prohibitions. The Lovings have never disputed in the course of this litigation that Mrs. Loving is a "colored person" or that Mr. Loving is a "white person" within the meanings given those terms by the Virginia statutes.
Virginia is now one of 16 States which prohibit and punish marriages on the basis of racial classifications. Penalties for miscegenation arose as an incident to slavery and have been common in Virginia since the colonial period.

The central features of this Act, and current Virginia law, are the absolute prohibition of a "white person" marrying other than another "white person," a prohibition against issuing marriage licenses until the issuing official is satisfied that [388 U.S. 1, 7] the applicants' statements as to their race are correct, certificates of "racial composition" to be kept by both local and state registrars, and the carrying forward of earlier prohibitions against racial intermarriage.

"Punishment for marriage. � If any white person intermarry with a colored person, or any colored person intermarry with a white person, he shall be guilty of a felony and shall be punished by confinement in the penitentiary for not less than one nor more than five years."
The freedom to marry has long been recognized as one of the vital personal rights essential to the orderly pursuit of happiness by free men.
Marriage is one of the "basic civil rights of man," fundamental to our very existence and survival.

The Fourteenth Amendment requires that the freedom of choice to marry not be restricted by invidious racial discriminations. Under our Constitution, the freedom to marry, or not marry, a person of another race resides with the individual and cannot be infringed by the State.


María Belén Del Pozo
10/2/2011 03:33:21 am


Source: http://www.adcq.qld.gov.au/Cases/Sex.htm


Sex discrimination and sexual harassment:

A woman alleged that whilst she was working in a building-related industry, a co-worker made a lurid suggestion for sex, which offended her. She claimed when she lodged a complaint with the company, the co-worker refused to apologise, and afterwards the company treated her less favourably by transferring her to another work site further from her home. During the first day at the new work site, she said she was subjected to belittling and humiliating comments and behaviour by co-workers which management encouraged and did nothing to stop. She left the work site and has not returned.

The company denied that they had treated the woman less favourably because she had lodged an internal complaint of sexual harassment, claiming she had been transferred to the new work site because of errors she had made in her work at the previous site. The company was unable to substantiate their claims of poor work performance. The co-worker who allegedly made the initial comment, admitted in the conference that he had made the lurid suggestion but had never intended to offend the woman.

The matter was resolved at conciliation, by the co-worker providing the woman with a sincere and genuine apology, admitting to the behaviour and acknowledging regret and remorse for his actions. The company agreed to pay the woman $2,500 for her costs to pursue the matter. The company also offered an apology for any offence taken, and a renewed offer of employment which the woman accepted.

Sex discrimination in the work area:

While the Commission is not the body that rules upon the credibility of the parties’ version of events, when there is clear, independent, demonstrable evidence that discrimination has not occurred it is appropriate for, and indeed incumbent on, the Commissioner to exercise the discretion allowed under the Act to reject a complaint for want of substance.

Two complainants alleged that they were denied opportunity to seek employment in a service run only for women.

The respondent acknowledged that this was indeed because of their sex, as they were male, but advised that this was done as a welfare measure in the interests of women using the service who have been identified as a significantly disadvantaged group by the government. The respondent provided a range of information to argue the exemption relating to welfare measures, including:

statistical information demonstrating the benefits to women accessing the program run by the service;
sociological data regarding the need for a female environment due to common life experiences of women accessing the program; and
information about the higher need for female staff due to their duties involving close physical and personal contact with women accessing the program.
The Commissioner formed the opinion that the respondent had provided sufficient independent documentation to establish the welfare measures exemption, and rejected the complaints.

Sex Discrimination in Provision of Goods and Services:

A woman approached a company to purchase some goods. She asked to make an appointment for a company representative to visit, to do an in home quote. The woman alleges that she was told it would be necessary for her husband to be present at the quote. She asked the company if the same question would be asked of a man in the same situation and alleged that she was not given an answer.

In response the company said that its aim is to have all decision makers present when quotes are given so as to ensure that the correct information is relayed to all involved in the decision to purchase. The company stated that single or widowed customers are given the option of having a friend with them when a quote is being provided.

In conciliation the company stated that they had not intended to act in a way that would be considered discriminatory. The company acknowledged the problems associated with advising married customers to have all decision makers present and giving an option to other customers such as those who are single or widowed to have a friend present. They acknowledged that this was less favourable treatment.

The company provided a written apology to the woman and agreed to develop and implement an anti-discrimination policy. This was done with the assistance of the Commission. After the conference the general manager of the company thanked the Commission for its assistance in bringing to their attention the potential problems with their previous practices. The company stated that they learned a great deal from being party to the complaint and that they will aim to avoid any further complaints being lodged in future.

Sex Discrimination in Work:

A woman who had been employed in the office of a water transport business for a number of years, decided to seek employme

Nicole King
10/2/2011 03:33:33 am

Toshiba and Gender discrimination in U.S.
Toshiba’s U.S. business was slapped with a $100 million lawsuit for alleged discrimination against female employees over pay and promotion. It’s not the first time Toshiba has been in the spotlight on the broader issue of gender disparities in the workplace.

This issue was raised at the company’s shareholder meeting in Tokyo last June; during the question and answer session, one shareholder asked why Toshiba didn’t have any female executives. Like many other Japanese companies, Toshiba’s board of directors and executive officers are all male.
“We are not discriminating at all,” a Toshiba executive said in response to the shareholder’s question. “It’s just that we haven’t found appropriate candidates. We expect to have female executives in near future,” he said.
The lawsuit filed this week against Toshiba America Inc. claims that the company regularly fails to pay women equal salaries and bonuses as men who do similar work, segregates women into lower pay-grade positions and favors men for promotion. The suit seeks to represent a class of as many as 8,000 female employees in the U.S.
While this is the latest in a string of gender discrimination suits against major companies in the U.S., the case involving a unit of the Japanese electronics maker also sheds light on the broader situation in Japan, where discrepancies in labor conditions between men and women are larger than they are in the U.S.

The average wage level for women in Japan was about 68% of that for men in 2008, according to a survey of workers (excluding those working part-time) by the Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare. By comparison, women’s wages in the U.S. were about 80% of men’s in 2008. The fact that few women are in middle manager and executive positions in Japan results in a big wage difference, the ministry says.

According to a 2009 survey by business publisher Toyo Keizai, just 1.2% of executives at listed Japanese companies were women. In the U.S., women held 13.5% of executive officer positions in Fortune 500 companies in 2009, according to a survey by Catalyst Inc, a nonprofit organization that focuses on women in the workplace.
In Japan, many social and political factors are behind the statistics showing a gender gap at work places.
One main factor, for example, is lack of support both at home and in the society for women trying to have children while keeping their full-time jobs. About 70% of women who get pregnant quit their jobs in Japan, according to a ministry official. This also reflects the society’s expectations that women shoulder more childcare responsibilities than men.
The government implemented a revised law last year to make it easier for men to take childcare leave while also allowing women to work shorter hours after returning to work following their maternity leave. The labor ministry has also been calling on companies to proactively implement measures to narrow gender gaps in terms of promotions and other working conditions.
While those may not immediately translate into better conditions for working women, “revising the system is also a way to raise people’s awareness,” says the ministry official.

Source: THE WALL STREET JOURNAL, Toshiba accused of gender discrimination in US, http://blogs.wsj.com/japanrealtime/2011/02/01/toshiba-accused-of-gender-discrimination-in-us/, access: 1 October 2011

María Belén Del Pozo
10/2/2011 03:36:14 am


decided to seek employment with the same company as deck-hand. She expressed long-term plans to gain a Captain’s licence.

She alleged she was made to feel unwelcome by her male co-workers who commented to her that the work would be too heavy and dirty for her. The male co-workers conceded over time that she was able to perform the duties of the position as well as they could.

Because of a down-turn in business the company was forced to remove a service which resulted in a reduction in work hours for deck-hands. As a consequence her rostered water-time was shortened resulting in loss of hours and loss of training and career opportunities. She alleged her complaints to the company about unfair treatment by favouring male staff in the rostering times were ignored. In her view, the apparent necessity to reduce hours was unfairly distributed between her and her male colleagues. Her chosen career to aspire to Captaincy, she intimated, was seriously jeopardised.

In conciliation the respondents conceded that there were no female deck-hands, acknowledged that the comments about work being too heavy and dirty for her were made, and that this may have influenced the distribution of work. The complaint was settled by conciliation with payment of $12,000 compensation, a written apology and agreement that the company would undertake training on anti-discrimination.

Nicole King
10/2/2011 05:38:51 am

Women driving

The role of women in the society has changed throughout history, but some beliefs cannot be transformed, as those are rooted in the minds of the people. Some experts argue that women have now the same rights and obligations than men, and as Kofi Annan once said, more countries have understood that women's equality is a prerequisite for development. The problem is that this idea has not been voluntarily understood or accepted by the whole society, but the leaders have obliged them to respect women in every aspect of life. That’s the reason why today we can still find discriminatory acts which are generally accepted by the society. One specific is the one regarding women diving and the “danger” that it implies.

The streets of Quito, and in general of any big city, have become extremely aggressive, the accumulation of stress and the large amount of cars difficult the mobilization in the city. Men feel that women have entered into the space that was previously dominated by men, and as Simone de Beauvoir said, “No one is more arrogant toward women, more aggressive or scornful, than the man who is anxious about his virility.” That’s why it is son common to hear phrases and jokes saying that when a woman drives there is a constant danger in the streets (“mujer al volante peligro constante”) At the beginning these seemed to be something uncommon, but when paid close attention, it can be seen that it’s a reality, specially among Spanish speaking countries.

Women are constantly bullied in the streets while driving, what makes this task even more difficult to be performed. Some men are totally convinced about this as being a fact, and not only a perception, and assure that due to some characteristics it is more difficult for a woman to drive. This belief comes from the idea that women can don many things at the time, so it is common to see a woman distracted with a phone call or with make up while driving. It is more difficult for a woman to be able to focus on one task, and do nothing else than that. The number of women driving is rising, but is still much lower than the number of men doing it, that’s why there is no precise data regarding who is more dangerous, but it is a fact that a high percentage of men die in car accidents, while women don’t.

To conclude, I think that women should be given a chance to drive freely without constantly hearing a discouraging comment of “that one in the car is surely a woman”. We should be given the opportunity to learn and to mobilize without any fear. It is not about being feminist or machist, but of having the same opportunities and being treated equal, in this way the number of women being independent and driving alone will increase, it’s a matter of complaining about this acts of discrimination, that have become so common, and do as Ayaan Hirsi Ali, who says that “some things must be said, and there are times when silence becomes an accomplice to injustice.” (INFIDEL, Ayaan Hirsi Ali)

Carmen Vinueza y Mayte Burgos
10/2/2011 06:44:06 am

Racism in Ecuadorian society

Racism is a particularly cruel form of discrimination because it appears from a mistaken belief in the superiority of one group of people over another. Discrimination occurs when people or institutions behave themselves in a harmful way to others because of their race, religion, culture, colour or ethnic differences. Racism exists because of misconceptions and incorrect or stereotypes.

The survey done by SISPAE in the Ecuadorian Society showed which ones suffer the most because of racism. The chart demonstrates that 88% of the afro-Ecuadorians are the principal victims, followed by the indigenous with 71%. In contrast, the white ones suffer less because of racism with 12 % followed by the mestizos with the 22%. The study also indicated that racism is related to poverty. People tend to have more discriminatory acts against the afroecuadorians or indigenous because of their economic status, they have the highest rate of unemployment and poverty. This condition is also an important factor that makes them more vulnerable for racism in the Ecuadorian society.

But, why do afroecuadorians and indigenous have the highest rate of poverty and unemployment? Upon the study mentioned before, afroecuadorians said that the main reasons to be the poorest one are: the state doesn’t give them enough opportunities, because the society doesn’t consider to be equal as everyone else because of being “black”, they have been always poor among others. The phenomenon of racial discrimination has to do with the whole society. This includes the citizens, the government and the different institutions of the state as well as the media, specially the media. In Ecuadorian TV, for instance, there are a lot of advertising and programs that show acts of racism. Programs such as “VIVOS”, or “MI RECINTO”, show most of the times to afroecuadorians or indigenous like uneducated people, sillies, and with no desire to develop; people with no goals. A lot of the people watch this kind of programs and put this idea in their minds. Another example was this “Deja” detergent advertisement, it was always showing one afroecuadorian woman washing the clothes, all the time, there is nothing wrong with washing the clothes by the way, some people make living with that but, why they couldn’t put one white woman instead. There are more examples like these that show that the whole society has to do a lot with this wrong conception about “black people”. We have to stop this, there is racism in Ecuador, and racism is wrong. This directly involves the responsibility of one person, as their behavior demonstrates individual attitudes, thoughts, statements or opinions biased, negatives or hurtful about other person by the mere fact that, this is racially different, has different skin colour or different physical or cultural characteristics. Racism or any xenophobia manifestation is considered a Hate Crime, in Ecuador.

As a conclusion, we can say that we are still a racist society even when we are part of a multicultural and multiethnic one. Racism has the intention of reducing or excluding the human rights of those discriminated.
Although racism is not innate to human nature, our society is based on profound inequalities, racism is taught the white and mestizo children in schools, at home, on television and on the media.
Indigenous children and African descent are also involved with values that naturalize social inequalities in the supposed racial differences. Thus, whites and mestizos are taught to be racists and Afro-descendant and indigenous children are taught that racism and ethnic inequality are part of human nature.
After all, these misconceptions about equality or inequality it is considered that misconceptions about the equality or inequality that have been provided to children in schools and homes, they play an important role. If you really want to see a change, we should start to change the education given to the youngest, and not only from schools but also from the houses.

Mayté Burgos
10/2/2011 06:49:27 am


Transgendered Woman Wins Sex Discrimination Case

Sept. 19, 2008
A transgendered woman, who lost a job offer because of her sexual status, has won a potentially groundbreaking federal sex discrimination lawsuit.
A federal district court judge in Washington, D.C., ruled today that the Library of Congress discriminated against Diane Schroer when it offered her a job and then rescinded it after learning she was transgendered.
The American Civil Liberties Union, which represented Schroer, said Judge James Robertson's ruling is the first to hold that the federal sex discrimination statute, Title VII of the 1964 Civil Rights Act, applies to transgendered people.
Other courts that have considered the issue have said Congress only intended for the anti-discrimination statute to protect men and women, but not people who change their sex, the ACLU said.
Robertson disagreed, saying Schroer's case "was discrimination based on sex."
"It is tremendously gratifying to have your faith in this country, and what is fundamentally right and fair, be reaffirmed," Schroer said. "I very much hope that this ruling will help to eliminate the all-too-pervasive discrimination against sexually nonconforming people in all areas."
She added, "I hope, too, that employers, family members, friends and co-workers will begin to understand variations in sexual orientation and identity from a basis of knowledge and not fear."
Schroer said she applied for, and was offered, a job at the Library of Congress as David Schroer.
When David went to his first meeting with his soon-to-be boss, Schroer told her that he would be transitioning to a female before starting the job. The next day, the job offer was rescinded, Schroer says.
For more than 25 years, David Schroer was a star in the U.S. Army, rising through the ranks to become a Special Forces commander while leading a classified anti-terrorism unit involved in covert operations.
That all changed when Schroer abruptly retired from the military and made a shocking announcement that stunned both his colleagues and family. He would no longer be Col. David Schroer, because he is now Diane Schroer, a transsexual.
In a 2005 interview with "20/20" Deborah Roberts, Schroer explained why, after decades of service in one of the most dangerous and macho lines of work, she became a woman.
"Does seem a bit of a disconnect," Schroer acknowledged. But, she says, she has struggled with her gender identity -- privately -- since childhood.
"Something was different since even before I can remember. I was always enthralled with things the girls were doing. ... Whenever my parents were gone, I would experiment with my mother's makeup. And wondered why I enjoyed doing that ... Wondered why I couldn't carry a purse," Schroer said.
Painful Internal Battle
Her lawsuit may be precedent-setting, but Dr. George Brown, a military psychiatrist, said Schroer's story is not unique. He said he's treated hundreds of soldiers who are transsexuals. Brown described transsexualism as "a sense that there's been a biological mistake -- that the body doesn't match who you are as a person inside."
Schroer says it was apparent to her from the time she was a child, growing up in Oak Lawn, Ill., just outside Chicago. Her brothers, Gary and Bill, only remember a happy childhood with their little brother, however.
Page 2 of 3
Sept. 19, 2008
"I think it was probably very much ... the typical American family, three boys growing up. We played baseball. We played in the neighborhood. We rode bikes. We pretty much did what other kids did in the '50s," said Bill Schroer.
Schroer's siblings never knew their little brother was suffering quietly, never daring to mention the anguish inside.
Schroer says growing up as a boy left her feeling uneasy and deeply conflicted about who she really was. "When I hit adolescence, it was, at times, consuming. ... So, I did everything I could to push that out of my mind," she told Roberts.
When David Schroer entered Northern Illinois University, he was in full denial of his gender crisis. He worked as an auto mechanic, an electrician and joined ROTC. After graduation, he entered Special Forces and somehow thrived in the most dangerous of military careers. He even fell in love with a woman and got married.
"We had a normal sexual relationship," Schroer said. "Although, I would say that I would often think of myself being on the other side of the relationship."
Ending Years of Denial
Schroer managed to keep up the act, rising through the ranks of the military. By his mid-40s, he was a Special Forces commander, leading a classified anti-terrorism unit and managing an $8 billion budget. He even briefed Vice President Dick Cheney on secret missions.
But he grew tired of denying what he believed was his true sexual identity.
"I think when I learned enough to understand what it was that I was really feeling ... I could either hide that, or I could acknowledge to the world

Mayté Burgos
10/2/2011 06:51:34 am


that I was, in fact, a woman. And receive their acknowledgement back," Schroer told "20/20."
Schroer told his wife first, even hoping there might be a possibility they could stay together. But the couple decided to separate.
Schroer's marriage was over, but he found fulfillment for the first time. He began openly dressing as a woman and calling himself Diane. Schroer was retired at the time, and didn't have to break the news to Washington's top brass. But he began telling his Special Forces buddies, including retired Lt. Col. Dan Bernard.
"The way she explained it to me was by showing me some photos that had been taken of her as a woman in a business kind of setting, wearing makeup and with a big wig and women's clothes. ... And I didn't get mad and I didn't storm out," Bernard said.
"I explained to him about being transgendered and what that meant, and he sat back for a moment and said, 'You really had me scared. Wow, I thought you were going to tell me something bad.' ... It was a tremendous relief," Schroer recalled.
Now, Schroer was confident enough to tell family, nervously breaking the news to Bill and Gary -- still dressed as David.
Even though the news was, and continues to be, difficult to accept, Gary Schroer said there was never a question in his mind about being supportive to his younger brother. "It's still tough. But support and acceptance are two different things," he said.
Schroer then began the long and painful process of becoming a woman, undergoing intense therapy and taking female hormones under medical supervision. He also started wearing makeup, and underwent extensive cosmetic surgery.
Page 3 of 3
Sept. 19, 2008
In 12 hours of surgery, Schroer said, doctors gave him "a scalp advance, a forehead revision, nose reconstruction, upper lip revision, jaw and chin reshaping, and a tracheal shave." In a tracheal shave, the surgeon reduces the cartilage in the throat to get rid of a masculine-looking Adam's apple.
The genital reassignment surgery would come later. But in the meantime, Schroer was already looking more feminine and beginning to envision a new relationship.
But Schroer wasn't envisioning a sexual relationship with any men. Schroer is interested in dating women. "I would say I am, in fact, a lesbian," she said.
Schroer's desire to be with women is not uncommon for transsexuals. Brown says gender identity and sexual preference are two entirely different things.
"If sex and gender were the same, then that would make no sense at all. Sexuality is who you're attracted to. Gender is who you are as a person, male or female. So, the surgery and the transition is all about matching the mind with the body. It has nothing to do with sexuality," Brown said.
At Center of Landmark Gender Discrimination Suit
While Schroer is grateful to have the acceptance of her family, she has encountered challenges in her public life. While still transitioning to become female, Schroer applied for, and was offered, a job as a terrorism analyst at the Library of Congress late last year.
Because she was still legally David Schroer, she did not reveal her plans to her prospective employer during the interview.
She decided to tell the woman who hired her that she would begin work as a woman, not a man. Schroer said it seemed as though the woman took the information in stride and that the hiring was going forward as planned.
But the following day, Schroer said she was told that she was no longer "a good fit" for the position. Schroer and her brothers were furious.
The Library of Congress first agreed to an interview with "20/20," but then declined, citing Diane's lawsuit. In an e-mail, they wrote that they "acted appropriately and complied with the law" and that "claims such as those raised by Ms. Schroer ... are not covered under Title VII of the Civil Rights Act" or the U.S. Constitution.
While waiting for her day in court and looking for a full-time job, Schroer's deepest fears concerned her family who had yet to see her as a woman. In July, Schroer allowed "20/20" cameras to film her first visit as a sister with her family in suburban Chicago.
The family was understandably surprised by the dramatic change in her appearance, but before long, the brothers were reminiscing about their childhood. For Gary and Bill Schroer, the memories are bittersweet as they feel, in a sense, they've lost a brother while gaining a new sister.
For Schroer, the childhood memories have a far different meaning. She's always known that inside that little boy lived a little girl who longed to grow up and become a woman. "What's great about my life now is that it's unified, it's focused and this huge distraction that was in my life is now gone."

Carmen Vinueza
10/2/2011 07:00:09 am


Wal-Mart Discrimination Case Grapples with Implicit Biases against Women
Victoria Pynchon, Contributor
As the New York Times‘ Adam Liptak reported today, the Supreme Court will decide on Tuesday whether 1.5 million women will be permitted to proceed with their gender discrimination class action against Wal-Mart.
The high court is being asked to decide what role it believes social science research should play in determining whether implicit bias is responsible for women’s underpay and under-representation in Wal-Mart’s management ranks. At the center of the Supreme Court case is the testimony of Sociology Professor William T. Bielby, at University of Illinois at Chicago.
Bielby opined in the lower court that all of the class members were treated unfairly in pay and promotions even though he did not review the individual personnel decisions. In his report to the Court, Bielby asserted that “[s]ubjective and discretionary features of the company’s personnel policy and practice ma[d]e decisions about compensation and promotion vulnerable to gender bias.” He also argued that there were “significant deficiencies in the company’s policies and practices for identifying and eliminating barriers to equal employment opportunity at Wal-Mart.”
When asked in his pre-trial testimony “how regularly stereotypes play a meaningful role in [Wal-Mart's] employment decisions,” Bielby couldn’t “put a number on it.” Prodded further, he admitted that he would be unable to give a range anywhere between “.5 percent of the employment decisions and 99.5%.”
Therein lies the problem of letting experts draw conclusions about causal connections between our well-documented discriminatory tendencies and a particular decision to promote or not promote a particular person on a specific occasion.
The Wal-Mart case will not be an easy one to decide. Nor will the court be able to go all Red-State/Blue-State on the parties. When the trial court judge whose decision is being appealed held that the Plaintiffs could proceed with their class action, he based his decision on
largely uncontested, descriptive statistics which show that women working in Wal-Mart stores are paid less than men in every region, that pay disparities exist in most job categories, that the salary gap widens over time even for men and women hired into the same jobs at the same time, that women take longer to enter into management positions, and that the higher one looks in the organization, the lower the percentage of women.”
The Evidentiary Problem
As I’ve previously noted, world- renowned orchestras vehemently denied that gender played any role whatsoever in their hiring decisions. The decision to hire a musician, they protested, was entirely based upon gender-neutral decisions about the quality of the work. Musical excellence cannot be objectified. It is necessarily subjective. Therefore, women had no way of proving that their under-representation had anything to do with gender.

Maybe women were just not as good as the men. Or they hadn’t had the time to practice as often as their male peers given their (presumed) child-bearing and -raising activities. Or perhaps they were more distracted by their family obligations than men were and that accounted for their deficient performance
When the women finally convinced orchestra hiring committees to conduct blind auditions, the results were dramatic. Blind auditions increased the probability that a woman would advance from preliminary rounds by 50 percent and the likelihood that they would be ultimately selected increased several fold. Gender played a role after all. Changing hiring practices resulted in more equitable hiring decisions and likely improved orchestra performance at the same time.
But Should it Be the Law?
If the Supreme Court accepted the Bielby evidence, it would be following a well-established practice in American jurisprudence. Litigator (and later Supreme Court Justice) Louis Brandeis relied on similar evidence when arguing the case of Muller v. Oregon in 1908. In support of his argument that that women were weaker laborers than men, Brandeis used empirical data from hundreds of sources to show the adverse effects that long hours and harsh working conditions had on women.
A Brandeis brief that gave rise to a more celebrated opinion is the one written by attorney (later Supreme Court Justice) Thurgood Marshall in Brown v. Board of Education. Marshall submitted evidence in the court below demonstrating that “separate but equal” education as practiced in our Southern States had harmful psychological effects on African-American school children. The Court accepted the evidence and ruled in favor of the Plaintiff, setting into motion the desegregation of public schools over the next forty years.
The Difference Between Proving the Harmful Effects of

Carmen Vinueza
10/2/2011 07:01:45 am


...of Discrimination and a Causal Connection
You can’t live in a CSI world without being familiar with expert witnesses. Courts permit their testimony when ordinary people can’t be expected to figure the problem out without a little expert assistance. Statistics come to mind, as well as complicated medical procedures and engineering decisions made before buildings fall down. Courts are justifiably wary, however, of permitting experts to give evidence on matters that ordinary people are perfectly well able to decide – matters like why someone was denied a promotion. Or are they?
Let’s assume the orchestra women had brought a discrimination claim against the Los Angeles Philharmonic. How likely were they to prove that they were denied a call-back because implicit bias was at work? Not much given how subjective hiring decisions in the arts are. The same is unfortunately true for the 1.5 million women who labor in Wal-Mart’s fields everyday. A manager decides she “doesn’t have the necessary team spirit” or “isn’t bright enough” to enter the management training program. He decides the male candidate shows a lot of promise and looks like “management material.”

These are the same kind of decisions that get made in law firms every year. My friend Lauren Rikleen has recommended in her must-read book Ending the Gauntlet, Removing Barriers to Women’s Success in the Law,
Performance reviews that feature rigorous, detailed criteria and that are regularly scheduled, taken seriously, and conspicuously tied to compensation and advancement are a critically important factor for easing gender bias.
If management insists on continuing to use vague and subjective performance criteria that have repeatedly been shown to play such a large role in excluding women from executive suites, Boards of Directors and the offices of equity and managing partners worldwide, applying the force of the law may be the only answer.
The Supreme Court on Tuesday can narrow the discussion to the evidentiary question presented to it in a cultural vacuum or it can address the broader policy issue – whether the inability to prove the effects of implicit bias on a case-by-case basis should permit employees to use social science research to prove that the system itself is implicitly rigged against them.
In the meantime, those employers that are not taking steps to craft pay and promotion criteria to encourage equity among the genders are failing themselves and their customers as well as more than half their workforce.
The energy and potential of women workers is a terrible thing to waste.

Elisa Peñaherrera
10/2/2011 07:03:12 am


By Ashley Archibald
June 17, 2011 • 2:45 pm

Racist Acts At California High School Revealed, Student Tied To Locker While Peers Shouted ‘Slave For Sale’

Victoria Gray didn’t think much of it when her 17-year-old son stayed home from school on May 5.
Everyone needs a mental health day sometimes, she told him, thinking that perhaps he needed the extra freedom to get caught up on homework or take a breather from the pressure cooker of high school.
It would take another three and a half weeks before her phone rang. A woman Gray did not know informed her there had been an incident at school.
According to the parents of minors who witnessed the alleged events, on May 4 before wrestling practice during sixth period at Santa Monica High School , teammates entered the practice room and saw a rope. Nearby was a wrestling practice mannequin.
Varying reports describe the rope and mannequin in different configurations. Although pictures were taken using students’ cell phones, most if not all were deleted at the request of staff, according to multiple sources, including Santa Monica-Malibu Unified School District Superintendent Tim Cuneo.
Gray’s son, who is on the team and is African American, walked past the dummy (mannequin) and noose (rope) into the locker room to change into gym clothes.
Two boys allegedly approached him in the locker room. One grabbed him in what Gray described as a “bear hug,” while the other slipped a lock through his belt loop and connected it to a nearby locker.
The boys allegedly then walked back out of the room, shouting, “Slave for sale.”
The wrestling coach, Mark Black, walked in on the scene and broke it up immediately. The incident was reported to administration that night, and counseling sessions were held for students that needed to speak about what they had seen.
That day, May 5, Gray’s son did not attend school.
Gray was at work on May 31 when she found out about what had happened. Her son didn’t tell her, not wanting to make a big deal out of it.
Although other parents on the team had been told, Cuneo said, for some reason, Gray was not informed.
“I apologized to her personally,” he said.
Whether the juvenile victim wanted it to be or not, the situation was a big deal, said Darrell Goode, president of the NAACP for Santa Monica and Venice.
“When behavior comes out this darkly, it requires a high level of awareness and reaction to it,” Goode said. “One, we have to make sure the victim is OK.
Two, if there’s a crime committed, we must make sure it’s addressed appropriately.”
Even the symbolic use of a noose is considered a hate crime in California, Goode said.
The two juveniles involved were punished under the hate-motivated behavior policy, which is the same as the harassment policy, Cuneo said.
One of the boys is homeschooled, and attends one class at the Snata Monica. The other is registered as a daily student.
They were suspended, will attend counseling and will work with staff to provide anti-bullying and anti-hazing workshops for incoming freshmen.
Cuneo met with Gray Wednesday afternoon to discuss what had happened, and what steps the district would take to shed light on the matter.
Gray had three requests: To send out a mass e-mail to parents and teachers saying that a racial incident had occurred, to create a separate document in the student handbook for students to sign regarding racial discrimination and to clarify punishment for the involved students.
A mass e-mail, sent on behalf of Samohi Principal Dr. Hugo Pedroza, was sent Thursday afternoon. It described the event as “an incident with racial overtones,” but did not give details about what had occurred.
Cuneo did not agree to including a separate form, noting that harassment was covered by a wider policy that mentioned race, found on page 14 of the student handbook.
Goode, who also attended the meeting with the superintendent, called for a full investigation of the incident in its totality to clarify many of the points that remain uncertain, including the use of the noose and the positioning of the dummy.
“We want it clear so we can unravel the whole situation,” Goode said.
Parents remain unhappy about the outcome, and ultimately worried for both the wrestling program and for its leader, Black, who they hold in high regard.
“He is respected, and loves my child,” said parent Sherri Walker. “He helped her with her homework. He’s a very rare coach who looks out for the overall good of the child, not just the athleticism of the child. Those boys did a discredit to him.”Cuneo confirmed that neither the wrestling team nor its coach were in jeopardy

SOURCE: June 17, 2011 • 2:45 pm

Carmen Vinueza/Mayté Burgos
10/2/2011 07:03:28 am

Carmen Vinueza/Mayté Burgos
10/2/2011 07:09:07 am

here is the bibliography that we use:

*Racism in Ecuadorian society

*Transgendered Woman Wins Sex Discrimination Case

*Wal-Mart Discrimination Case Grapples with Implicit Biases against Women

Ana Daniela Naranjo
10/2/2011 07:29:26 am


A story about racial discrimination in Quebec

September 2, 2008

I remember going to a “Quebecois” school in Quebec where I first learned about racial discrimination when I was younger. The difference between a “Canadian” school and a Quebecois school in Quebec is the Quebecois school generally had separatist influences, they are relatively less diverse than the Canadian schools, there is no trace of anything distinctly Canadian, and there is no assistance to students who do not speak French as a native language.
Canadian schools, on the other hand, had a diverse student body, had some programmes for non-French speaking students, and put down racism in their school by promoting multiculturalism. My early experiences were both at a Canadian (St. Lawrence School) and Quebecois school (Ecole Samuel-De Champlain) where I spent 2 years in each school when I was young.
The first instance of racism I experienced at a Quebec school called Ecole Samuel-De Champlain, was when I was entering the school in the morning. While I was walking to class, some French kid kept making “Ching-Chang-Chong” noises while looking at me while a few kids called me a “Chin-tok (Chink in French)”. The kids that were around me simply ignored it as if it was normal while a handful laughed. At another instance, some French kids beat me up, trashed the things in my bookbag, and told me to “Go back to China” in French because they felt immigrants were taking his parents’ jobs or diluting the Quebecois spirit.
Then there was that second grade teacher named Sylvie L, who still teaches in the school as a grade 1 teacher. At that time she was in her late thirties, and I learned later that her husband was unemployed. I knew when I was younger I was a bit of a troublemaker, but I always thought it was strange how she would only give stern warnings to the White kids in the class while throwing me out of her class for the entire day when I did something wrong. This was strange because I did similar things to the other kids, but I got a harsher punishment and she never called me back to class once she threw me out.
I think these things were related to immigration and that’s why I get disgusted when people opposed to immigration rabidly deny that the issue has a racist element to it. I can definitely say, it has a racist element since I had the luxury of experiencing it first-hand in Quebec, Canada.
I really don’t like talking about this part of my life but it is a crude reminder of who I am. It’s also a reason why I unlearned the French language, abandoned my Catholic faith, and one of the reasons why it took several years to come to terms with myself.
My experiences in America are much better than Quebec. Although there is more ignorance than rampant racism here compared to Quebec, I want to do what I can to eliminate negative racial stereotypes and explore what it means to be Asian-American.


Daniela Pazmiño
10/2/2011 07:34:19 am

AmEx 'HIV sacking' suit


Source: http://www.nypost.com/p/news/local/manhattan/amex_hiv_sacking_suit_VeTryUUxTu12wYZTS19wpJ

An American Express executive was fired for being HIV-positive, he claims.

Brett Knight, 41, had worked for American Express since 1990.

Although he was HIV-positive throughout his employment, Knight said he didn't have a problem at the Financial District office until he started working with a new supervisor, Michael Slover, last summer.

When Knight took a sick leave due to complications from his condition, doctors reported his HIV status and sexual orientation on a Family Medical Leave Act application.

Although Knight was approved for a two-month sick leave, Slover discovered his employee's sexual orientation and HIV status.

That's when things got ugly, Knight said.

Slover allegedly refused to shake Knight's hand or touch any papers or objects Knight had handled, wouldn't enter Knight's cubicle, and would talk to his employee only from "a safe distance," Knight claims in a lawsuit he filed Wednesday against American Express in Manhattan Supreme Court.

"It's been the most horrific experience of my life," Knight said.

In July, Knight lost his job, which the company blamed on the need to reduce its work force; Knight, who is still out of work, declared the move "a pretext" for his alleged unlawful termination.

American Express declined to comment.

Carolina Seaman and Vanessa Vernaza
10/2/2011 10:43:41 am

What Happened ???

Although Ecuadorians are descendants of several races and not just from one, we all tend to act in a discriminatory manner towards people we consider are different from us. According to David T. Wellman, the author of Portraits of White Racism, (Second Edition), “The essential feature of racism is not hostility or misperception, but rather the defense of a system from which advantage is derived on the basis of race…an underlying belief in the superiority of one race over another and its right to dominate.” We live in a society where this is present every single day in the street and sometimes even in our own home.

Last week, after class was over, Vanessa and I were walking out of the campus. From our side we could see that there was a woman walking on the other side of the street and behind her was a tall good-looking black man. When the lady noticed that this particular guy was walking behind her, she suddenly crossed the street to our side and she kept looking at the man to make sure he didn’t follow her. After this, we got to watch the man’s reaction and he just laughed as if this was a normal situation for him.

We started to talk and think about this situation and it is like something common that we are used to see on the streets. People stereotype black people as dangerous and if we think about it we can realize that actions such as holding our bags tighter when they are around, getting far away from the black people, seeing them from top to bottom as if they had something weird, telling “jokes” about them, etc; are actions that show the false ideas that we have about them in our minds. The worst thing is that they are so used to this behavior that the black people and even the ones that are not affected or seeing the situation from the outside, don’t say anything anymore.

We don’t have this prejudices since we are born, they are taught to us in some way by the society in which we live. But it is something that we MUST change in order to get that equality on which we all dream. We grow up and we become conscious and mature enough to decide how to behave ourselves without damaging the others. We read a quote said by an anonymous author that defines what we think about racism, and it says “The only thing that should be separated by color is Laundry”. Instead of judging a person just because of his/her skin color, let’s give ourselves a chance to know them better and then we will surely reorganize the false ideas that we have in our minds about them.

Dayra Puertas
10/2/2011 11:36:30 am


My Little Story With Racism
APRIL 30, 2006 – 11:28 PM |

I think that my upbringing, plus the fact that I grew up in Zimbabwe and also my getting to travel a lot, meeting different people and having friends from all races and nationalities, makes me one of the people who are the farthest from racism as possible.

I’m not just one of those people who go on about how they’re not racist but then say that it’s impossible for them to marry someone from this race or that, or who feel somehow superior to people from a certain nationality or race, and that list of contradictions goes on…
No, I’m someone who is genuinely un-racist. I wouldn’t have even hesitated to marry a woman from any other race or nationality if I truly fell in love with her. I have friends from all over the world who are different from me in race, nationality, religion and more; yet when I’m with them I don’t feel one bit of difference.

Anyway, what reminded me of all this is this experience I had when I was a kid in Zimbabwe, in which I was a victim of racism and not the opposite.

I must’ve been around 8 years old or so, and we lived in this compound which mainly consisted of families of foreigners, who were there for work or who newly settled in the country.

I had a number of friends from England, Greece and Portugal within the compound, and I had a bunch of Zimbabwean friends who lived in nearby buildings.

One of my black Zimbabwean friends belonged to a poor family that lived in a little house made of tin, not too far from the compound we lived in.
I really liked him and enjoyed playing with him a lot. I’d go around with other Zimbabwean friends sometimes and other times on my own, and we’d go out and play all kinds of games; Almost anything is enjoyable when you’re a kid.

Our friendship grew, and all was great until his father knew about it and he started telling his son not to play with me because I was white.

I thought that was unfair, and I didn’t understand why such a thing could matter at all, so I didn’t give up and I kept sneaking over to my friend’s place to take him out to play.

His father caught me while sneaking in a number of times and started running after me with a stick, trying to scare me away from coming back to play with his son, but I’d just outrun him, jump over fences, go through some of my other friend’s houses to lose him, and then just run back to take his son out to play before he got back.

It was a challenge for me. I wouldn’t tolerate someone judging me by my colour. How come he let his son play with other black kids, but stopped him when it came to me?!
And so I went on coming back time and time again.

In the end he just gave up; I think he finally realized I was unstoppable and that I would go on playing with his son whether he liked it or not.

That memory still passes through my mind every now and then, and makes me wish that we were all more like children, and that we’d stop judging each other for all the stupid reasons we put between us. Why can’t we all just accept each other for what we are and embrace our differences and accept them as enriching elements that make each one of us unique.

Dayra Puertas
10/2/2011 11:39:35 am

I've also found a interesting case of discrimination that has to do with human rights:
The story of the Honourable Al Shaymaa J. Kwegyir
Al Shaymaa J. Kwegyir, a Tanzanian member of parliament describes albinism as a “disability just like any other form of disability” but in Tanzania it's a condition where many sufferers are forced into hiding for fear of their lives.

Not only do many Tanzanians believe albinism is a curse, the body parts of albinos are sought by witch doctors for use in potions sold to bring wealth and good luck.

Kwegyir was speaking at Voices: ‘Everyone affected by racism has a story that should be heard', a daily side-event at the Durban Review Conference in Geneva .

She was born into a family with nine children, three of whom are albinos. Kwegyir was more fortunate than many in the albino community. “We were loved by our parents and relatives. There was no stigmatization within the family”, she said.

When Kwegyir asked her mother why she was white, what was the problem, her mother always assured her there was no problem.

For many other albinos it's a very different story. Not only are they often cast out by their own families, in some tribes they are killed immediately after birth, and they are commonly hunted down and murdered because their body parts are used by witch doctors.

There are no figures on the numbers of albinos in Tanzania but albinism is more common in Africa than the rest of the world. Around 1 in 20,000 people world-wide have albinism, a genetic disorder which results in significant reduction or absence of pigmentation in the skin, eyes and hair.

In Tanzania very few albinos manage to go beyond primary school level and they have few opportunities to compete for jobs. The incidence of poverty amongst albinos says Kwegyir, is alarming.

Their poverty also makes it impossible to access appropriate medical care including the preventative medications for skin cancer which is common amongst albinos especially in tropical zones.

With the support of her family Kwegyir managed to go on through secondary school despite the daily taunts she faced on the streets and to a career in the civil service. For many years she has campaigned for the recognition and rights of albinos in Tanzania and last year her efforts were recognised by the President who appointed her a member of parliament.

With the support of the government, Kwegyir now campaigns on behalf of all disabled persons but particularly for albinos.

At the first of the Voices side-events, Deputy High Commissioner for Human Rights, Kyung-wha Kang reminded delegates that, “amid all of this great and important weight of words, we must never forget that such words must both convey and address real experiences in the lives, struggle and suffering of individuals.”

Over the course of the week, 15 individuals will offer their personal experiences of racism at scheduled sessions each day. The “Voices” event was inaugurated at the 2001 Durban Conference against Racism.

Kang spoke of the participants in Voices as the “main event” of the conference. “Your stories represent the challenges that we are all here to confront. They will inspire and remind us of the very real effects of racism, racial discrimination, xenophobia and related intolerance on lives everywhere.”

April 2009

I found the previos case on: http://www.subzeroblue.com/archives/2006/04/my_little_story_with.html

Ana Daniela Naranjo; Geovanna Velásquez
10/2/2011 12:59:56 pm

"In the end antiblack, antifemale, and all forms of discrimination are equivalent to the same thing - antihumanism.”
Shirley Chisholm

Ecuador is a diverse country where we can find people from different cultural identities. People show that they are proud of that, however, we can live discrimination against women, poor, black and native people. Discrimination not always is showed in an implicit way. We can demonstrate discrimination even in little aspects like our language. Tzvetab Todorov in his book “La conquista de América: El problema del otro”, talks about how people discover the other and represent him not just like different but less valuable and inferior. Every person that is not white, man, christian, rich is seeing like “the other” and by consequence discriminated. The real problem is that we analyze and know other cultural identities in relation with our own culture so we judge, we don’t respect

We can feel discrimination against minorities everywhere for example, in the province of Chimborazo, we can find puruhá-quichua people that want to live in cultural isolation however, the majority of studies that people have done about this culture try to “folclorizar” their live and include them in the mean of development that the country has without respecting their wills and ways of thinking. Another example is poor people are excluded and rejected by the society for instance they don’t have basic services, they have none opportunities, they cannot take decisions and they are secluded in some places in the country and the city. Poor kids don’t have the chance to study and consequently no possibility to get integrated into the community.

Another example of discrimination is the situation of indigenous when they migrate to the city. They migrate in order to work but “white people” feel that they have to help this people not by giving them a job but giving them money in the streets. We use words like “cholo”, “longo”, “indio sucio” as offends. The same think happens with black people who are traditionally seen like burglars. People use to cross the street when see black people walking on the sidewalk. Another great example that we experience every day is in the university: we have almost no indigenous and black people studying with us. Places where black people and native people live have no basic services or good schools and their traditional cities like Chimborazo, Chota or Esmeraldas are poor zones. If we see a black man driving a car, we think that he is a criminal, a driver or a soccer player.

In conclusion, most of people affirm “I don’t discriminate” but do you really have a relation based on respect with indigenous or black people without judge? Every word that we say against a minority such as “merienda de negros” “pastuzo’s joke” is a way of discrimination. Believing that every Arabian person is a terrorist is also discrimination. If we want to change this reality and fight against stereotypes, we have to change of way of thinking and also create social politics that give similar opportunities to people of different cultural identities.

“If you believe that discrimination exists, it will.”
Anthony J.D'Angelo

And each of us can practice rights ourselves, treating each other without discrimination, respecting each other's dignity and rights.
Carol Bellamy

As the world develops in several aspects, some others are not taken into consideration; and worst than that some are not even noticed by a big majority. In some situations, there is the unconscious excuse. This is the case of gender discrimination which is spread in several daily social acts, and more specifically in our case: gender discrimination in sports. We can mention that in 1896 the founder of the modern Olympics, Baron Pierre de Coubertin, said: "No matter how toughened a sportswoman may be; her organism is not cut out to sustain certain shocks." It is important to mention, that of course, women and men have physical and mental differences but that does not mean that our rights like human beings should be different or unequal.

My friend and I, we both grew up in this amazing country named Ecuador. We lived in different families, we studied in different schools and of course we have our personal behavior and way of thinking. And moreover the thousands of things that we have in common, one specifically made us furious. The fact of been sportive girls who have always trained hard to reach a goal, until someone came and told us that “sports are not for women” or “you do not represent a competition to me”. What really made us furious is not the fact of feeling that we are not able to do something, but the idea of having someone telling us that we are not capable or in this case, at the same level as a man.

Is certainly a challenge for a girl to compete “in a men’s world”. Not just because of having to put more effort than males in the disciplines we practice, but mainly because we must overcome the most difficult barriers of all: prejudices. We had to come across odd or even disappointing situations, like having male rivals underestimating us. “Don’t worry, I won’t be that rude to you” or “You have no chance against men” are phrases that we used to hear frequently. As a common player, our aim was to give our best in the game; but when we had to face this kind of discrimination, hidden after a fake mask of courtesy and respect to our femininity, it becomes personal. Standing behind a ping pong table or before a goal turns out to be a proof of strength and a fight for equality. Since we try to give it all in what we love to do, we have met success many times in our lives, but even then, victory is not as sweet as one could imagine. Losing against a woman is comparable to an insult for some men that still think that women are not capable of doing whatever a man can do or that still believe in the traditional gender roles imposed by society.

Let’s face it: We’re not the same, but our differences are not that abysmal. It’s not difficult to see that those “difference” lie only in what regards to biological features. What really counts is the desire of each one of us of doing what we love to do and giving the best effort each time we do it. It’s not strength what determines the success of failure of dream… It is perseverance, passion and courage what forges a true champion. Stereotypes can be defined in only one word: Old-fashioned. Both, women and men, have the same rights and opportunities of reaching their goals in life. So, in order to make a global chance and establish an order of gender equality we must start in our daily life. Mental barriers are the enemy, and they’re not as undefeatable as we think: “All the idols made by man, however terrifying they may be, are in point of fact subordinate to him, and that is why he will always have it in his power to destroy them.”

Because I am a woman, I must make unusual efforts to succeed. If I fail, no one will say, "She doesn't have what it takes." They will say, "Women Don’t have what it takes."

Clare Boothe Luce

Geovanna Velásquez
10/2/2011 01:47:29 pm

One Man's Story of Discrimination by Dean Olson
In 1988, my first year with AT&T, I experienced my first incident of discrimination.
I hear poorly over office cubicle walls -- I have a hearing loss requiring the use of the strongest behind- the-ear hearing aids on the market. One day I was working at the computer terminal and I heard an indistinct noise. I looked up. I saw two of my co-workers begin to laugh. I asked what was said, but heard no answer. Later, this incident was repeated.
I didn't usually hear an answer to asking "pardon me?" or "what did you say?" I believe no ill will was intended.
By itself, this incident meant nothing. At the time, I didn't realize it might be discrimination.
Acquaintances, friends and relatives are sometimes curious and play a game with me that is much like that. We can discover what my hearing is like via games. When I was a child, this method was used with me to help me learn to "guess" where sound comes from and what a sound is. But initiated at work by fellow employees, it's different: it creates an environment where we feel comfortable poking fun at or teasing others on the basis of their physical differences.
My experience does not reflect upon AT&T as a whole, but only parts of the corporation. I wish to portray the incidents as accurately as possible. I wrote many pages as the events occurred. I kept all email and letter copies. Others' tales have been told. My bosses have made explanations using collective experience, filters and paradigms developed in the hearing world.
I haven't been able to tell my tale until now.
**the story is written in 3 pages. Here I left the link where you can find what happened: http://www.ragged-edge-mag.com/sep97/disc.htm
In addition, I have found these two videos with cases of racism and xenophobia:
In the Supreme Court, seven female Wal-Mart employees made the push for a class action lawsuit against the company for sex discrimination. Jan Crawford reports on the charges that could cost the corporation billions of dollars.
“Un español fue detenido tras insultar y golpear a una adolescente ecuatoriana en el metro de Barcelona.”
An Ecuadorian woman is insulted in Barcelona.

10/2/2011 02:10:41 pm


SOURCE: https://docs.google.com/viewer?a=v&pid=sites&srcid=ZGVmYXVsdGRvbWFpbnxlbXBsb3lkaXNjcmltfGd4OjIxYjNhYmM1MTM1MjM1Y2Y ( SUMMARY)

Dukes v. Wal-Mart Stores, Inc.

Dukes v. Wal-Mart Stores, Inc., a sexual discrimination lawsuit, was the largest civil rights class action suit in United States history. It charged Wal-Mart with discriminating against women in promotions, pay, and job assignments in violation of Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964.
The case started in 2000, when a 54-year-old Wal-Mart worker in California named Betty Dukes filed a sex discrimination claim against her employer. Dukes claims that, despite six years of hard work and excellent performance reviews, she was denied the training she needed to advance to a higher salaried position. Wal-Mart's position is that Dukes clashed with a female Wal-Mart supervisor and was disciplined for admittedly returning late from lunch breaks.
In June 2001, the lawsuit began in U.S. District Court in San Francisco. The plaintiffs seek to represent 1.6 million women, including all those who work or have previously worked in a Wal-Mart store since December 26, 1998. In June 2004, the federal district judge, Martin Jenkins, ruled in favor of class certification under FRCP 23. Wal-Mart appealed the decision.
In 2004, journalist Liza Featherstone published a book about the case, Selling Women Short: The Landmark Battle for Workers' Rights at Wal-Mart in which she contends that Wal-Mart's success is based not only on its inexpensive merchandise or its popularity but also on bad labor practices, a charge she repeated in an article about the case for The Nation.Featherstone compared Dukes to Rosa Parks.
On February 6, 2007, a three-judge panel of the Ninth Circuit affirmed the district court's class certification. Judge Harry Pregerson wrote for the majority, which also included Judge Michael Daly Hawkins, while Judge Andrew J. Kleinfeld dissented, criticizing the majority's view of the class certification standards. Wal-Mart promptly filed for a rehearing and a rehearing en banc, contending that the majority committed legal error with regard to whether the grounds for class action certification had been met.
On December 11, 2007, the same Ninth Circuit panel withdrew its initial opinion and issued a subsequent, superseding opinion that still permitted the class certification. The panel dismissed the original petition for rehearing as moot in light of its superseding opinion, on the grounds that the revised opinion addresses the legal errors claimed in the petition, although Wal-Mart was permitted to re-file its petition. Among other changes to its original opinion, the Ninth Circuit altered its opinion with respect to the admissibility of expert testimony and the use of Daubert challenges during a motion for class certification. Wal-Mart again filed for a rehearing en banc.
On February 13, 2009, the Ninth Circuit granted Wal-Mart's petition for rehearing en banc on the class action certification.[8] As a result, the December 2007 Ninth Circuit opinion was no longer effective.
On March 24, 2009 a panel of eleven Ninth Circuit judges, led by Chief Judge Alex Kozinski, heard oral arguments for the En Banc appeal. On April 26, 2010, the en banc court affirmed the district court's class certification on a 6-5 vote, with Judge Michael Daly Hawkins writing for the majority and Judge Sandra Segal Ikuta writing for the dissent. Wal-Mart's lead appellate counsel, Theodore Boutrous, Jr., said in a statement that the decision violates "both due process and federal class action rules, contradicting numerous decisions of other federal appellate courts and the Supreme Court itself," and indicated that Wal-Mart would appeal to the U.S. Supreme Court.Plaintiffs' counsel argue that "Wal-Mart is attempting to dismantle the Supreme Court's employment discrimination class action jurisprudence [that] would require the Court to overrule 45 years of civil rights and class action precedent."
Conservative commentators have criticized the lawsuit as an abuse of the class action mechanism.
On December 6, 2010, the Supreme Court agreed to hear Wal-Mart's appeal as Wal-Mart v. Dukes. Oral argument for the case occurred on March 29, 2011.
On June 20, 2011, the Supreme Court ruled in Wal-Mart's favor, saying the plaintiffs did not have enough in common to constitute a class. The court ruled unanimously that because of the variability of plaintiffs' circumstances, the class action could not proceed as comprised and 5-4 that it could not proceed as any kind of class action suit.

Angela Ponce
10/2/2011 02:12:52 pm

Babi Yar massacre: Poet Yevgeny Yevtushenko recollects

29 September 2011 Last updated at 07:21 GMT

It is 70 years since what is believed to be the biggest single massacre of the Holocaust. On 29 and 30 September 1941, the Nazis took almost 34,000 Jews to the edge of the Babi Yar ravine in Ukraine's capital Kiev and shot them all.

The horror of what happened was highlighted 20 years later when Russian poet Yevgeny Yevtushenko wrote a poem entitled Babi Yar. He spoke to BBC World Service.

It was desperation - shame came to dictate this poem”

It is 70 years since the massacre of these innocent victims, and it is 50 years since I wrote the poem Babi Yar.
I wrote it in August 1961 in the city of Kiev, and - surprisingly - it was published.

I met the writer Anatoly Kuznetsov - he was an eyewitness to what happened in Babi Yar.

He told me the story, and I asked him to accompany me to the site.

I knew there was no monument at Babi Yar, but I was expecting to see some sign of respect.

But what I saw was absolutely terrible - there were lots of trucks and they were unloading stinking garbage on the tens of thousands of people who were killed. I did not expect that.

As soon as I got back to my hotel, I sat down and I began to write - it took probably four or five hours, no more.
Most of my poetry is based on either love and tenderness or on shame.

It was desperation - shame came to dictate this poem.

I felt guilty myself, a kind of personal sense of guilt on my young fragile shoulders.

I do not call Babi Yar a political poem. It is above politics - human suffering is more. You cannot compare that with politics.

The wild grasses rustle over Babi Yar.
The trees look ominous, like judges.
Here all things scream silently, and, baring my head,
Slowly I feel myself turning grey.
And I myself am one massive, soundless scream
Above the thousand thousand buried here.
I am each old man here, shot dead.
I am every child here, shot dead.
Nothing in me shall ever forget!
Translation by George Reavey

When I read the poem to my wife, she said: "It is so terrible what happened there, that it is better not to write about it."

She was right in a way - it is very difficult to find words which are expressive enough. It was too much for words. Words are too weak.

I understood her, but I said: 'We have to write about such things. We cannot allow future generations to forget."

When I recited Babi Yar for the first time in public, there was an avalanche of silence. I was absolutely shocked - paralysed.

And afterwards a very, very little old woman with grey hair and a cane - her cane had been knocking against the stage - she came to me in the dead silence.

She said just one sentence, "I was in Babi Yar." She was one of the survivors who crawled from under the mountain of dead bodies.

The poem was a criticism of anti-Semitism worldwide, including Soviet anti-Semitism, and was against all kinds of racism.

I was not afraid because I had already been expelled from the Literary Institute - I had been expelled from all kinds of organisations.

And I believed there was a future of change for Russia - that was also important.

The poem was one of the changes; it was one first hole in the iron curtain.

The composer Dmitri Shostakovich called me, and he was very polite.

He said: "You gave words to my thoughts. I have a dream to write music to your poem. Would you be so kind as to give me your permission."

I do not remember what I mumbled - I was overwhelmed, on the verge of euphoria.

The music of Shostakovich made this poem 10 times stronger.

Shostakovich's 13th Symphony forced Ukrainian party bureaucracy to build a memorial.

He was the moral architect of this memorial.


Patricio Suárez
10/2/2011 02:47:55 pm

On line case about a discriminatory act

Top Gear faces racism test case following Mexico comments

Youtube link: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=kIQ9iv3ZkaM

Top Gear faces racism test case following Mexico comments

Source: http://www.telegraph.co.uk/motoring/top-gear/8300046/Top-Gear-faces-racism-test-case-following-Mexico-comments.html
By:By Laura Roberts8:00AM GMT 03 Feb 2011.

A Mexican woman has accused the BBC programme Top Gear of racism and instructed lawyers to bring a test case against the show after remarks made by the presenters characterised Mexicans as lazy and oafish.

Lawyers for Iris de la Torre, a 30 year-old jewellery design student, said the BBC had used racism to boost ratings and could cost the Corporation up to £1million in damages.
In the episode, which was viewed by more than 6 million people, Richard Hammond claimed that cars imitate national characteristics.
"Mexican cars are just going to be a lazy, feckless, flatulent, oaf with a moustache leaning against a fence asleep looking at a cactus with a blanket with a hole in the middle on as a coat," he said.
Jeremy Clarkson went on to joke that being Mexican would be "brilliant" because then he could sleep all day.
The Mexican ambassador to Britain has already made an official complaint to the BBC for the programme's "xenophobic" and "offensive" content and demanded an apology.
De la Torres' lawyers, from the firm Equal Justice, also brought legal action against Channel 4 following remarks made about Shilpa Shetty during Celebrity Big Brother.
In a legal complaint to the BBC they claim that the remarks are unlawful and a breach of rules banning discrimination by public bodies, according to a report by The Guardian.
De la Torre said: "I was shocked at what the BBC allowed to be broadcast...I do not understand how such ignorant people hold such high-profile jobs."
If taken to court it could become the first case to be brought under the Equality Act which came into effect in September last year.
Lawrence Davies, from Equal Justice, said: "These remarks were probably calculated and deliberate to fuel anger and hence boost ratings - the presenters apparently feel that they are fighting a battle against political correctness."
The BBC said it had not yet received the legal letter but said that it would be dealt with through appropriate channels.

The Mexican ambassador answer
Mexico complains about 'vulgar' Top Gear

source: http://www.telegraph.co.uk/motoring/top-gear/8297611/Mexico-complains-about-vulgar-Top-Gear.html

Mexico's ambassador to London has demanded an apology from the presenters of "Top Gear," expressing outrage over remarks characterising Mexicans as lazy and oafish.
Ambassador Eduardo Medina Mora Icaza complained in a letter to the BBC that Jeremy Clarkson, Richard Hammond and James May used what he described as bigoted stereotypes against Mexicans in a Sunday broadcast.
In the episode, which was viewed by more than 6 million people, Hammond claimed that cars imitate national characteristics.
"Mexican cars are just going to be a lazy, feckless, flatulent, oaf with a moustache leaning against a fence asleep looking at a cactus with a blanket with a hole in the middle on as a coat," he said.
Clarkson went on to joke that being Mexican would be "brilliant" because then he could sleep all day.
He said he was confident he would not receive any complaints about their comments because the Mexican ambassador would be asleep.
However, the ambassador did complain and wrote: "It is utterly incomprehensible and unacceptable that the premiere broadcaster should allow three of its presenters to display their bigotry and ignorance by mocking the people and culture of our country with such vehemence," the ambassador wrote.
The letter said the trio's "outrageous, vulgar" insults reinforce negative stereotypes and inflame racism against Mexicans.
The BBC did not comment but said it would respond directly to Mr Mora. Representatives for Hammond, Clarkson and May could not immediately be reached for comment.
The show's unscripted format —and large personalities — are no stranger to controversy. Clarkson once apologised for making unsavory jokes about truck drivers killing prostitutes and separately took heat for calling former Prime Minister Gordon Brown a "one-eyed Scottish idiot".
Last week, the programme was named most popular factual show at the National TV Awards.

BBC reply
Top Gear apology to Mexico

Sorce: http://www.telegraph.co.uk/motoring/top-gear/8302575/Top-Gear-apology-to-Mexico.html

The BBC has apologised to the Mexican ambassador over remarks made on Top Gear.
But the corporation defended the show's presenters, who branded Mexicans ''lazy'', ''feckless'' and ''flatulent'', saying national-stereotyping was part of British humour.
His Excellency Eduardo Medina-Mora Icaza wrote to the corporation to complain about the ''outrageous, vulgar and inexcusable insults''.
The BBC said it had now written to the amb

Patricio Suárez
10/2/2011 02:50:08 pm


The BBC said it had now written to the ambassador to say it was sorry if the programme caused offence.
In a statement the corporation said the comments may have been ''rude'' and ''mischievous'', but there was no ''vindictiveness'' behind them.
It said: ''Our own comedians make jokes about the British being terrible cooks and terrible romantics, and we in turn make jokes about the Italians being disorganised and over dramatic, the French being arrogant and the Germans being over-organised.
''Whilst it may appear offensive to those who have not watched the programme or who are unfamiliar with its humour, the executive producer has made it clear to the ambassador that that was absolutely not the show's intention.''
The BBC said stereotype-based comedy was allowed within its guidelines in programmes where the audience knew it could be expected.
The executive producer of Top Gear also apologised to the ambassador personally for remarks made about him.
In the episode, broadcast on January 30, Richard Hammond joked that Mexican cars reflected national characteristics, saying they were ''just going to be lazy, feckless, flatulent oaf with a moustache, leaning against a fence asleep, looking at a cactus with a blanket with a hole in the middle on as a coat''.
James May described Mexican food as ''like sick with cheese on it'' and Jeremy Clarkson predicted they would not get any complaints about the show because ''at the Mexican embassy, the ambassador is going to be sitting there with a remote control like this (snores). They won't complain, it's fine''.
In his letter to the BBC, the ambassador wrote: ''The presenters of the programme resorted to outrageous, vulgar and inexcusable insults to stir bigoted feelings against the Mexican people, their culture as well as their official representative in the United Kingdom.
''These offensive, xenophobic and humiliating remarks only serve to reinforce negative stereotypes and perpetuate prejudice against Mexico and its people.''
The ambassador demanded the show's hosts make a public apology and it remains to be seen if the BBC's response to his complaints have gone far enough.
Hundreds of Mexicans contacted the BBC to protest against the remarks which caused national outrage.
Yesterday a cross-party group of six MPs urged the BBC to apologise as ''a matter of urgency'', saying ''this level of ignorance is far below anything expected from anyone in the public eye and illustrates a serious lack of judgment by the programme-makers''.
Deputy Prime Minister Nick Clegg visits Mexico later this month.
It is not the first time the show, with its blend of motoring news, schoolboy humour and audacious stunts, has got into trouble.
In 2008 the show was rapped by the BBC Trust for showing Clarkson and May sipping gin and tonics at the wheel during a stunt.
Hundreds of viewers also complained after Clarkson made a joke about lorry drivers murdering prostitutes.

Fanny Salazar n Patricio Suárez
10/2/2011 03:32:05 pm


Judgements prevent us from seeing the good that lies beyond appearances. ~Wayne W. Dyer

Nowadays, we talk about an international Minded Curriculum in a globalized world, but Ecuador’s reality is far away from this ideal. Ecuador is a small country, however it enjoys a huge ethnic diversity. Negative attitudes towards minorities are more common than what we belive. A mix of racism and xenophobia towards bus vendors is unconsciously experienced by the population of Quito, which uses public transportation. How can this exists in a multicultural country like ours?

A common practice among bus vendors consists on letting their possible customers to see their product. The routine begins with a salute and a well known mantra: “I came to this mean of transportation without the intention of stealing you. Today I’m offering you this cute and delicious product. if you buy it you won’t become poorer nor wealthier. Help this guy to feed his family...” But somehow we begin to categorize them according to their physical appearance: black, indigenous or mestizo. Then as a second stage it’s time to listen to how they pronounce their mantra. If an accent is perceived it is a must to determine where it comes from, if the speaker him or herself does not mention it.

Even though most vendors repeat these phrases as if they were their hymn, not all of them have the same success. This may remain unconscious in our minds, but the way we react to the vendors is not always the same.In our experience, vendors with a more mestizo appearance are more likely to sell their products. In fact the reaction to a black vendor is to hide all our valuables or to a indigenous one is not to accept the “product trial”. In the case of black people they sometimes threaten customers to buy the merchandise because they may be fed up with segregation or for indigenous ones this rejection to them may cause relegation. In both cases were causing traumas in them which are not harmful only for them but to all the society since they can react violently.

This is just one of many discrimination attitudes that can be witnessed in our daily live, towards bus vendors. A reality so common that has reached the stage where it is ignored or not even noticed. Unfortunately, experiences which involve bus vendors assaulting passengers, have led us to assume that vendors and robbers are the same, and we have ended up creating a stereotype judgement based on appearances which is reflected in negative attitudes. Therefore, a wake up call needs to be made among citizens, so that we can understand that different skin pigment or social origins don’t justify indifference or even hostile treatments.This is where Multicultural education plays an important role, raising children in a more understanding environment is the key to success in defeating racism. Meanwhile elderly people need to understand that bus vendors need to work just like everyone else.For most of them, getting on a bus means bringing home a piece of bread for their children.
it’s our time to change the way we perceive our society to go from:

Education in this country is about how to maintain the status quo and to perpetuate racism. Jane Elliot
To all of us deserve the same opportunities based in our skills and not in skin colors.

Johanna Gallrado and Elisa Peñaherrera
10/3/2011 01:13:59 am

Racism is “the belief that different traits in Human racial groups justify discrimination” It affects overall minorities around the world such as black people and indigenous people. In order to stop somehow this thinking it is important education as Merry M. Merryfield states in her article “the difference global educator can make” She says that “global educators make instructional decisions that profoundly influence students’ understanding of other cultures and global issues” global educators are important in students lives because they can help them to develop their open mindedness, resistance to stereotyping, acquire skills in cross cultural communication and learn to consider other cultures as equals. All these skills are important to avoid acts of racism and discrimination that happens every day around the globe, such as the case we are going to present in the next lines.
Racism deeply ingrained from the Spanish colonial era is still found; Afro-Ecuadorians are strongly discriminated against by the mestizo population. According to the 2001 census, Afro Ecuadorians represent the 5 per cent of the total population, living mostly in the northern province of Esmeraldas. This region has become one of the most touristic places, there are a lot of condos and resorts trough its coast. In a condo located in Tonsupa, about six months ago, at the fence were drivers have to show an ID to the guard, a black woman tried to pass to go to her department, the guard didn’t allowed her because he said she couldn’t have a property there. As a result she was deeply offended and started to insult him by saying the black people had money too and that he shouldn’t treat her like that, people started helping her, later on she called the manager of the condo, and he let her in.
In addition, regrettably, this is not the only discriminatory act of the place, at the hotel’s pool you can see a sign forbidding domestic employees to swim in the pool. It is incredible how this is not the only place that has these prejudices and makes people feel inferior. Is common to see this signs and this acts of racism trough various places in the country, places where there are two elevators one for the domestic service and other for the owners. It is unbelievable how these acts still occur in our country the fact that black people have problems to go into a place or that constructions have divisions for employees is something that makes you believe that we still live in another era.
These acts happen all over the world, and it is the same people (black people, indigenous people, and poor people) who are always discriminated by the color of their skin, by their economic situation, by their culture and behave. In this globalized world, it is important to have a change in thought and behavior, and education is something that could achieve that change. As David E. Bloom states in his article “Globalization and Education”, “the combination of education and globalization can be extremely powerful”. As we can see we lack of this combination, we don’t have education and this has led to a bigger discrimination, to overcome this, parents must teach their kids to respect others and to get rid of the misinformation.

"racism".Merriam-WebsterOnlineDictionary. 2009-03-16.http://www.merriamwebster.com/dictionary/racism. Retrieved 2009-03-16.

Johanna Gallardo CASE OF RACISM
10/3/2011 01:19:33 am

October 1, 2011 · 9:08 am Update: Hispanic Students Disappear From Alabama Schools

Hispanic students have started vanishing from Alabama public schools in the wake of a court ruling that upheld the state’s tough new law cracking down on illegal immigration.

Education officials say scores of immigrant families have withdrawn their children from classes or kept them home this week, afraid that sending the kids to school would draw attention from authorities.

There are no precise statewide numbers. But several districts with large immigrant enrollments — from small towns to large urban districts — reported a sudden exodus of children of Hispanic parents, some of whom told officials they planned to leave the state to avoid trouble with the law, which requires schools to check students’ immigration status.

The anxiety has become so intense that the superintendent in one of the state’s largest cities, Huntsville, went on a Spanish-language television show Thursday to try to calm widespread worries.

“In the case of this law, our students do not have anything to fear,” Casey Wardynski said in halting Spanish. He urged families to send students to class and explained that the state is only trying to compile statistics.

Police, he insisted, were not getting involved in schools.

Victor Palafox graduated from a high school in suburban Birmingham last year and has lived in the United States without documentation since age 6, when his parents brought him and his brother here from Mexico.

“Younger students are watching their lives taken from their hands,” said Palafox, whose family is staying put.

In Montgomery County, more than 200 Hispanic students were absent the morning after the judge’s Wednesday ruling. A handful withdrew.

In tiny Albertville, 35 students withdrew in one day. And about 20 students in Shelby County, in suburban Birmingham, either withdrew or told teachers they were leaving.

Local and state officials are pleading with immigrant families to keep their children enrolled. The law does not ban anyone from school, they say, and neither students nor parents will be arrested for trying to get an education.

But many Spanish-speaking families aren’t waiting around to see what happens.

A school worker in Albertville — a community with a large poultry industry that employs many Hispanic workers — said Friday that many families might leave town over the weekend for other states. About 22 percent of the community’s 4,200 students are Hispanic.

Anahí Herrera Gutiérrez
10/3/2011 03:51:58 am


Friday, November 02, 2007
Michigan Men Sue American Airlines

Group detained in August says they were racially profiled

DETROIT, Nov. 1 /PRNewswire/ --

Six Michigan men who in August were escorted off an American Airlines flight and then detained filed a race discrimination lawsuit Wednesday against the airline, saying the incident was a clear case of racial profiling, false imprisonment and a violation of civil rights.

Filed in U.S. District Court by Allen Brothers PLLC of Detroit, the lawsuit seeks hundreds of thousands of dollars in compensatory damages for hours of detainment, interrogation, public humiliation and embarrassment. The incident occurred when the group was returning home from providing consulting work for U.S. troops.

"The airline treated these individuals like criminals, simply because of stereotyping and ignorance. The irony is, these men were returning home from training our troops before deployment to Iraq," said Lawrence Garcia, the attorney representing the men. "This kind of prejudice is completely un- American."

The incident occurred August 28 on American Airlines Flight 590, which left and then returned to the gate in San Diego, Calif., at the behest of the Airline's flight crew. The flight, which was headed to Chicago, was rescheduled from Aug. 28 to Aug. 29 as a result.

When the airplane returned to the gate, the gentlemen were segregated and detained, while the other 113 passengers were assisted in finding hotel rooms. All of the men who were detained were of Middle Eastern ethnic origin. No other persons were detained or questioned.

"They treated me like a terrorist; I'm anything but a terrorist," said David Al-Watan, one of the men detained by American Airlines. "We didn't do anything wrong, but they made everybody scared of us."

The men who filed suit are: David Al-Watan, Talal Cholagh, Ali Alzerej, Hassan Alzerej, Hussein Alsalih and Mohammad Al-Saedy.

Arab-Americans have experienced a surge in hate crimes over the past several years, with the FBI having documented a 1,600 percent increase in hate crimes following 9/11 against those perceived to be Muslim or Arab.

Source: Allen Brothers PLLC

CONTACT: Darci E. McConnell of McConnell Communications, Inc.,
+1-313-237-0100, +1-313-686-8094


Dayra Puertas and Andrea Valarezo
10/3/2011 08:26:20 am

“Racism is man’s gravest threat to man, the maximum of hatred for a minimum of reason” Abraham J. Heschel

Racism has existed throughout human history. It may be defined as the belief that a person is superior, or inferior to another hatred of one person by another, may be because of skin color, language, customs, place of birth or any factor that supposedly reveals the basic nature of that person. It has influenced wars, slavery, the formation of nations, and legal codes. During the past 500-1000 years, racism has been part of every society and everyday life. There are thousands of examples all over the word, people often used to see the common racism practices as the only ones in the world, but looking closely we can see that in our personal environment we suffer a kind of racism without noticing it. In fact, in Ecuadorian society the usage of the word “longo” is a clear and latent racist act, which shows especially the lack of education, information, the intolerant and underdeveloped society where we are living
The word “longo” comes from quichua, and it actually means “young”. However, in Ecuador is very common to use this word in a derogatory manner, meaning a person of a lower class and not educated. According to Pedro Fermín Cevallos, in his book “Resumen de la historia del Ecuador hasta 1845”, the term “longo” is a clearly act of racism that comes from the colonial time, when Spanish colonialist had the objective to dominate the Indigenes and show their alleged supremacy. Later, this term was used to maintain the racial hierarchy between Mestizos and Indigenes. Therefore, the usage of this word is very common to be heard in Ecuadorian society, and most of the time it is not perceived as a racism act, most of the people often say this word out loud and totally natural, as if it would be common and like the word “hello”, without noticing how derogatory and offensive it is.
The word “cholo”, also comes from quichua, and is supposedly a neutral term to designate ethnic groups like the “cholas cuencanas”. It may be used, however, following the colonial Spanish manner of speech as a pejorative term to disparage someone as inferior, by being from a “lower class”; a designation historically associated and usually reserved to check the social status of those of greater Amerindian admixture. Usually, the words or the expressions “que longo, que cholo” are used to describe someone ugly or who doesn’t follow the fashion trend. Thus, if someone is not dressed properly according to the standard established by the television trends or the most popular students of school, this person would be “longo or cholo”. Another example of the misusage of the word is when somebody doesn’t have the latest cellphone or when somebody makes a comment or expresses an idea by using a specific dialect of the region that is not commonly accepted in the upper middle class: depending on the region or province, the letter “r” has different pronunciations.
In conclusion, after observing the daily behavior of people, we can see that the use of these two words has become a normal manner between us. Francine Wattman Frank writes in Language, Gender, and Professional Writing “language combines the functions of a mirror, a tool, and a weapon”; we need to learn how to use it as a tool, because in some way language reflects society and the cases and attitudes described above, show that we live in an intolerant one, that builds a barrier for the country to develop. Language should be the tool for people to communicate and understand each other, but it is being used as a weapon, because everybody uses any word and nobody cares about the real meaning and the effects and consequences that it might have on others. It is important to analyze and think before using the language and also educate other people to create a new culture and society with the right tools to develop.


10/3/2011 10:24:19 am

Racism is a problem that is gradually increasing in modern societies, but how is it possible to conceive hate without a reason? There is no logical explanation to justify the actions or events in which people offend each others, just because they are different, how can someone attack or criticize what is different or unknown? Is not true that we find beauty in diversity?, A world full of the same things would be a world without life, and without meaning, where we would not be able to differentiate things, right from wrong, what is really beautiful or different or even unique. We only need to look around us, every part of nature is different, but all are important, each complements the other. If we are surrounded with so much diversity, then why we condemn what does not look like us?
In recent days I've realized that racism is not just a verbal or physical attack to another person, the situation goes further, and the problem is deeper, there are many attitudes and millions of ways to hurt and harm someone, and although it may often be unintentional, these kind of things can be perceived in the air, and when a person puts attention is easier to realize it, in fact I've noticed that we live in a world full of prejudices and intolerance, maybe before this I thought different because I'd never noticed this situation, but ignore the facts do not make them disappear. The Ecuadorian society, which I used to consider healthy and almost intact from the bad things of the developed world has shown me that also suffer from these problems, perhaps not to the point of physical abuse to someone in public, although there are indications that show this kind of behavior especially in young people, which is concerning..
The facts are clear to everyone, in the street, on buses, banks, etc., normal and daily activities. I have noticed that our contempt for indigenous people is something of every day, we do not respect their culture or their way of living, and often is not even involuntary, we have the nerve to point it out, because we feel very normal to put terrible faces when are close to them or we are abusive with indigenous people but this is not correct. On Thursday, after finishing classes I took a bus to go home, the bus was full of people and everyone hit each other, it was something inevitable, almost half way, an indigenous man got on the bus , he was carrying a sack, and he stayed next of two girls of maybe 18 or 20 years old, when the man put down the bag both girls looked each other and even one moved her shoulders in a very rude way, every time that the man was too close to them they showed him terrible faces, I felt terrible and I imagine that for the poor man must have been worse
Como conclusión puedo decir que definitivamente es importante aprender a respetar y tolerar la diferencia entre personas ya sea por el color de piel, cultura, religión o ideología, el racismo es un problema que no debe crecer ya que enfatiza la capacidad del ser humano para hacer cosas mañas en vez de buenas, debemos aprender a ver más allá de las cosas y debemos dejar de ser tan egoístas y preocuparnos solo por nuestro bienestar, no hay duda de que el cambio esta en nuestras manos que de nosotros depende un futuro en el que todos seamos tratados como los seres únicos y originales que somos
As a conclusion I can definitely say that it is important to learn to respect and tolerate differences between people without taking into account the skin color, culture, religion or ideology, racism is a problem that should not grow because it emphasizes the human capacity to make hurt instead of helping each other, we must learn to see beyond things and it is essential to stop of being so selfish and we need to start to think in everybody´s welfare, there is no doubt that the change is in our hands, the future depends on us, we must be conscious that each one of us is unique , so we deserve to be treated with respect no matter what

10/3/2011 10:32:52 am

Sorry last one has a mistake!!

Racism is a problem that is gradually increasing in modern societies, but how is it possible to conceive hate without a reason? There is no logical explanation to justify the actions or events in which people offend each others, just because they are different, how can someone attack or criticize what is different or unknown? Is not true that we find beauty in diversity?, A world full of the same things would be a world without life, and without meaning, where we would not be able to differentiate things, right from wrong, what is really beautiful or different or even unique. We only need to look around us, every part of nature is different, but all are important, each complements the other. If we are surrounded with so much diversity, then why we condemn what does not look like us?
In recent days I've realized that racism is not just a verbal or physical attack to another person, the situation goes further, and the problem is deeper, there are many attitudes and millions of ways to hurt and harm someone, and although it may often be unintentional, these kind of things can be perceived in the air, and when a person puts attention is easier to realize it, in fact I've noticed that we live in a world full of prejudices and intolerance, maybe before this I thought different because I'd never noticed this situation, but ignore the facts do not make them disappear. The Ecuadorian society, which I used to consider healthy and almost intact from the bad things of the developed world has shown me that also suffer from these problems, perhaps not to the point of physical abuse to someone in public, although there are indications that show this kind of behavior especially in young people, which is concerning..
The facts are clear to everyone, in the street, on buses, banks, etc., normal and daily activities. I have noticed that our contempt for indigenous people is something of every day, we do not respect their culture or their way of living, and often is not even involuntary, we have the nerve to point it out, because we feel very normal to put terrible faces when are close to them or we are abusive with indigenous people but this is not correct. On Thursday, after finishing classes I took a bus to go home, the bus was full of people and everyone hit each other, it was something inevitable, almost half way, an indigenous man got on the bus , he was carrying a sack, and he stayed next of two girls of maybe 18 or 20 years old, when the man put down the bag both girls looked each other and even one moved her shoulders in a very rude way, every time that the man was too close to them they showed him terrible faces, I felt terrible and I imagine that for the poor man must have been worse
As a conclusion I can definitely say that it is important to learn to respect and tolerate differences between people without taking into account the skin color, culture, religion or ideology, racism is a problem that should not grow because it emphasizes the human capacity to make hurt instead of helping each other, we must learn to see beyond things and it is essential to stop of being so selfish and we need to start to think in everybody´s welfare, there is no doubt that the change is in our hands, the future depends on us, we must be conscious that each one of us is unique , so we deserve to be treated with respect no matter what

Belen Haro
10/3/2011 10:43:51 am


Sheriff Arpaio Sued Over Racial Profiling Of Latinos In Maricopa County
July 16, 2008

PHOENIX – Today, five individuals and Somos America, a Latino community-based coalition, sued Maricopa County Sheriff Joe Arpaio, the Maricopa County Sheriffs Office (MCSO) and Maricopa County, charging that they or their members were unlawfully stopped and mistreated by law enforcement because they are Latino. The class action lawsuit - which builds upon a complaint filed last December - is before the U.S. District Court in Arizona.

The amended complaint was filed by the American Civil Liberties Union, the ACLU of Arizona, the Mexican American Legal Defense and Educational Fund (MALDEF) and lead counsel Steptoe & Johnson LLP. The lawsuit charges that the policies and practices of Arpaio and the county are discriminatory and unlawfully violate the Fourth and Fourteenth Amendments to the U.S. Constitution, Title VI of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 and the Arizona Constitution.

"In this country we value fairness and equality. There's nothing fair or equal about armed deputies pulling people over and treating them differently because of the color of their skin," said ACLU of Arizona Legal Director Dan Pochoda. "Sheriff Arpaio does not have the right to profile people because they look Latino regardless of their immigration status. His job is to uphold the law, not violate people's rights."

Sheriff Arpaio has made no secret that he believes physical appearance alone is sufficient reason to stop and question individuals regarding their immigration status. Arpaio has also touted the fact that he has directed his deputies to target people they perceive as immigrants in so-called "crime suppression sweeps" in Latino neighborhoods and areas where Latinos work as day laborers.

MCSO's rampant racial profiling has created a culture of fear in Maricopa County. Latinos in the community have good reason to worry that a trip to the grocery store or to work will end with interrogation by armed officers on the roadside and possible incarceration at the county jail.

One plaintiff in the coalition's lawsuit, Manuel Nieto, Jr., a U.S. citizen, was unlawfully stopped and detained in front of his family's auto repair shop after police heard him listening to music in Spanish.

"It was very humiliating to be handcuffed in front of my family's business, in front of customers and neighbors," said Nieto. "It's not a crime to be Latino or listen to a Spanish-language radio station but you wouldn't know that by the way Sheriff Joe and his posse treat people."

David J. Bodney, an attorney with Steptoe & Johnson LLP, said, "At the sheriff's hand, an atmosphere of fear and hostility has swept across the valley. It takes courage and commitment for these individual plaintiffs to come forward in the name of equal justice under law to stop this discriminatory treatment for everyone who lives here."

Maricopa County residents and local officials alike have complained that the conduct of the sheriff and his office go well beyond the scope of the MCSO's legal authority and far too often results in the harassment of Latinos. Many complain that the sheriff's obsession with enforcing federal immigration law has come at the expense of his office pursuing serious criminal matters.

Phoenix Mayor Phil Gordon has denounced Sheriff Arpaio and last April, after the MCSO engaged in sweeps in the town of Guadalupe, Gordon formally requested that U.S. Attorney General Michael Mukasey launch a Justice Department investigation into Sheriff Arpaio's and the MCSO's "discriminatory harassment, improper stops, searches and arrests" of Latino persons in Maricopa County. Gordon has also publicly stated that the sweeps are interfering with the work of undercover city police officers and federal agents.

"Police should not be in the business of acting as immigration agents; everyone's safety is jeopardized when they do," said MALDEF staff attorney Kristina Campbell. "In Maricopa County, as in other parts of the country, when local police try to take on the job of being immigration officers, immigrants and their family members often get the message that they should fear coming forward if they are the victim or witness of a crime."

Increased attempts by local police to involve themselves in federal immigration law enforcement have been accompanied by a troubling rise in complaints of racial profiling across the nation.

"As charges of discrimination have mounted, Sheriff Arpaio has only dug in his heels, and the federal government has thus far done nothing to rein him in," said Robin Goldfaden, senior staff attorney with the ACLU Immigrants' Rights Project. "Unfortunately, court intervention is necessary for the Constitution to be upheld."

Lawyers on the case, Ortega Melendres, et al. v. Arpaio, et al., include Goldfaden and Mónica M. Ramírez of the ACLU Immigrants' Rights Pro

Belen Haro
10/3/2011 10:48:31 am

...Lawyers on the case, Ortega Melendres, et al. v. Arpaio, et al., include Goldfaden and Mónica M. Ramírez of the ACLU Immigrants' Rights Project; Pochoda of the ACLU of Arizona; Campbell and Nancy Ramirez of MALDEF; and Bodney, Peter Kozinets, Karen Hartman-Tellez and Isaac Hernandez of Steptoe & Johnson LLP.

Source: American Civil Liberties Union. http://www.aclu.org/immigrants-rights/sheriff-arpaio-sued-over-racial-profiling-latinos-maricopa-county

For further information, the complaint is online at: www.aclu.org/immigrants/gen/35998lgl20080716.html

Sabitre Paspuel and Fabián Campos
10/3/2011 12:21:41 pm


In spite of the World Conference against Racism of the UNO in 1948 and its efforts of specific measures addressed to combat ethnic discrimination(UN, Conferencia Mundial Contra el Racismo, http://www.un.org/spanish/CMCR/backgrounder1.htm), racism can be observed through hidden discriminatory attitudes in our daily life then the historical and new stereotypes inside the mind of the society have not been totally removed and the individual or particular characteristics are generalized to a group. In this way, racist ideology continues present inside the society whose manifestation against racism is not evident in the daily individual attitudes. All this situation could be named as: “Polite Apartheid” according to the Foundation to End the Polite Apartheid that published a book with the same name.

Currently, international organizations are dealing with stereotypes mainly because of its prejudicial approaches. However, no matter how many efforts were done there are still many discriminatory acts around the world. In the past, black race was considered as an inferior one because of slavery, as Gerald M. Boyd stressed in his book My Times in black and white, when a police man approached to him and asked for his papers just because of his color. Most of the time black people do not realize how competitive they are. In effect, convincing evidence is the fact that international enterprises relocate his companies in African countries, where workforce is less value. But beyond, despite of being transcended the age of slavery, in some societies, there is still evidence of a superiority´s undercurrent. This situation is in evidence on the markets in Quito where the indigenous sellers have attitude of inferiority and the buyers have attitudes of superiority according to Ricardo Carrillo in his book Racismo y Vida Cotidiana.

On the other hand, the way a person acts cannot be used to generalize and believe that everyone who belongs to the same ethnic group, culture, religion or race is going to behave in the same way. This sort of believes can lead to conflicts, such as Daniel Bar-Tal, says in his book Stereotypes and prejudice in conflict: Representations of Arabs in Israeli Jewish society, that after September 11th, American people generalized to everyone who comes from an Arabic country as a terrorist, which have mainly consequences like persecutions, sometimes victims’ family tries to avenge which promotes more and more violence.

To sum up, the Declaration of the Human Rights and the World Conference against Racism have an important influence for controlling explicit racism through treatments and policies in the different conferences. However, hidden racism is inside these through discriminatory attitudes in the daily life as it is quoted by Ricardo Carrillo y Samyr Delgado in the book Racismo y Vida Cotidiana. In this way, measures against racism cannot be addressed only to general control rules but to the internal change in the person, who needs to be conscious of the human dignity of each individual as it is promoted by The social teaching of the Church.

Fabián Campos A.
10/3/2011 01:02:51 pm


While the Western media and governments have been preoccupied with the so called "Arab Spring," little if any attention has been paid to the increased persecution of Christians in the Muslim Middle East.

Throughout the region, Christians have been targeted by Muslim mobs killing innocent bystanders, burning churches, and destroying Christian properties. Interviewed by The National on June 19, 2011, Rowan Williams, the Archbishop of Canterbury declared that the Arab Spring is posing a threat to Christian minorities throughout the Middle East. He added that "extremists were filling vacuums left by ousting of autocratic regimes," and "leading to Copts being targeted in Egypt." In Syria, Archbishop Williams warned, "tensions between Christian communities and Muslim majorities were reaching breaking point." And, he added that Christians in northern Iraq had been subjected to a form of “ethnic cleansing." The archbishop made his comments in an interview with BBC radio on August 30, during which he said that even in Bethlehem, Christ’s birthplace, the once-majority Christian population had now become a “marginalized minority."

The Voice of Russia radio interviewed Egyptian Human Rights activist, Waukee Yakub, and when asked what happened between the Salafi Muslim groups and the Coptic-Christians he replied: "After the revolution of January 25th Salafis came to power. And the only side with which they conflict a lot with is the Coptic Orthodox Christians. They know we are peaceful people and we don't hurt anyone and they started attacking churches, stop attacking even other Muslim people -- the Sufi Muslims that they don't like. What's happening now is that it seems like the Military Council that rules the country right now is totally involved with them and constantly agrees them. We have videos and lots of pictures that prove that they do nothing when it comes to attacks on Christians."

As the interview with the Voice of Russia continued, Yakub added: "The problem is with Salafi fanatics who have al-Qaeda-styled thinking. It's exactly al-Qaeda thinking: 'We are rejecting others; we want to kill the Christians; and, we want to make the Christians leave the country.' I have witnessed an incident in Imbaba, when a house was burning, and furniture was thrown out of the windows, while water quenching vehicles and the police stood there doing nothing. It was happening right in front of them. I've seen my own church set on fire and burning like hell and nothing was done. No one was arrested, though we have videos that show faces of the people, who are very well-known."

The American Coptic Association reported on August 30, 2011 that during an annual meeting in Rimini, Italy, also known as "Meeting for Friendships Among People," Cardinal Antonios Naguib, patriarch of the Catholic Church in Alexandria, said he was concerned about minorities' rights after the 25 January, 2011 Egyptian revolution. "Islamists will have great representation in the next parliament, which is normal. We should recognize its political force…but some fear they will assume power and impose an Islamic State."

A brief regional survey of recent cases of religious persecution of Christians reveals a clear pattern which neither the U.N. nor the European Union has responded to. In Iran, a 32-year old convert to Christianity named Youcef Nadarkhani was sentenced to hang for abandoning Islam for Christianity – a State crime. Nadarkhani has been in jail since October 2010 and has, so far, refused to recant his Christian faith. If he is hung, he would become the first Iranian to be put to death for apostasy since 1990.

Saudi Arabia, an alleged ally of the U.S., forbids any kind of non-Muslim religious ceremony -- public or private. If caught with a Bible, violators are sent to prison and then deported. A story in the Washington Times (11/14/05) underscored the religious intolerance of Saudi Arabia when stating that: "A court sentenced a teacher to 40 months in prison and 750 lashes for "mocking religion" after he discussed the Bible and praised Jews, a Saudi newspaper reported yesterday."

In Iskenderun, Turkey, the personal driver of Bishop Luigi Padovese, head of the Catholic Church in Turkey, was a Muslim named Murat Altun, who repeatedly stabbed and decapitated the Bishop and then proceeded to shout "I killed the great Satan. Allahu Akhbar." The brutal murder of Bishop Luigi Padovese, on June 3, 2010, shocked the small and hard pressed Christian community in Turkey. The 62 year-old bishop had been spearheading the Vatican's efforts to improve Muslim-Christian relations in Turkey.

Muslim violence against Christians in Iraq reached a new height in 2010 following the fire-bombing of churches in Baghdad and elsewhere throughout the country. It resulted in the flight of more than two-thirds of the ancient Iraqi Christian community. The Iraqi Christian leaders

María Belén Del Pozo and Anahí Herrera
10/3/2011 01:04:00 pm

“Remember always that all of us, and you and I especially, are descended from immigrants and revolutionists”
Last week we were walking outside the University and we saw how arrogant and disrespectful people are with some foreigners, especially Colombians and Cubans. A group of “hippies” were trying to sell some bracelets to a group of students and they treated them badly. Hours later the same day a group of Colombians arrived at a restaurant and the owner of it said there wasn’t food left for them and minutes later when they left the place, he continued selling the daily menu. Those kind of situations happen every day, but we just don’t notice them. If we paid attention to our surroundings, we would notice the discriminatory acts between national citizens and foreigners. For this reason we have chosen Xenophobia as our main point to develop our essay. The sociologist Bronwyn Harris defined xenophobia as an unreasonable fear and hatred of foreigners or strangers or of that which is foreign or strange. As defined by the OED, it can mean a fear of or aversion to, not only people from other countries, but other cultures, subcultures and subsets of belief systems.
Have you ever thought about why people don’t forgive and let things go? Why they hate and they keep on hating? If we analyze this situation deeply, one of the possible reasons why Ecuadorians hate Colombians is because of the facilities they have to come in here, in contrary to us when we want to travel to their country. They have a free entrance to our country, they don’t need a visa and some people feel that foreigners are taking some jobs that Ecuadorians could occupy. Hatred is the negative emotion that paralyzes rational thinking that leads to severe emotional, physical and spiritual harm. Unfortunately, in our society Ecuadorians tend to blame foreigners, especially Cubans and Colombians for the existing social problems such as delinquency, fraud or kidnapping. We, including ourselves, stereotype them as members of the guerrilla or drug dealers trying to take advantage of what we consider our country. 'Xenophobia' as a term must be reframed to incorporate practice. It is not just an attitude, it is an activity. It is not just a dislike or fear of foreigners; it is a violent practice that results in bodily harm and damage. Discrimination in all its horrific forms is transmitted across generations and is manifested in individual behaviors, institutional norms and practices, and cultural values and patterns. Racism serves simultaneously both to rationalize the hierarchical domination of one racial or ethnic group over other group(s), and maintain psychological, social, and material advantages for the dominant group. Both active racism and passive acceptance of race-based privilege disrupt the mental health and psychological functioning of both victims, and perpetrators, of racial injustice.

In Ecuador we might have realized that the police and some media have created the impression that criminal gangs operating in Ecuador are mostly led by Colombians. According to the High Commissioner for Refugees of the United Nations (ACNUR), often Colombian refugees are mistreated by the police and frowned upon by most of the Ecuadorians, Colombians seeking for refuge in Ecuador tend to be vulnerable because they have fled their country because their lives were threatened. In the buses we can daily see some cases as the one of Lydia, a38 year old Colombian, who is in the country as a refugee with her three children. They fled their home, after clashes between the left is Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia (FARC) and the right is United Self Defense Forces of Colombia. She said Ecuador is peaceful, but Colombian people are seeing at with suspicion, believing that they are criminals, and that it’s often difficult to get a rental property because when people hear they come from Colombia they reject them.
In conclusion, Xenophobia is an intense dislike or fear of people from other nationality, race, ethnicity and religion. The term is typically used to describe a fear or dislike of foreigners or of people significantly different from one (i.e. of different gender, sexual orientation, social status or anyone who looks strange relative to the observer) even in some cases people who may not be foreigners but look of foreign origin.
Xenophobia is still with us, and this time it is in its worst form. It is the most intense and pressing problem of 21st century. It reflects our lack of understanding of foreigners, (foreign cultures, religions, countries and races). We strongly believe that respect for the inherent dignity and well-being of each member of the human family is the psychological foundation of freedom, human justice, and peace in the world. This important principle is recognized in the United Nations Charter (1945), the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (1948), and every subsequent human ri

María Belén Del Pozo and Anahí Herrera
10/3/2011 01:06:03 pm


and every subsequent human rights declaration and convention. We are living in a globalized world and therefore we will have to deal with people from all over the world at any time, so we can not behave basing our actions on incomplete stories or stereotypes. We should be open-minded and mature enough to give each individual an opportunity to show us what they really are and how worth they are.


Fabián Campos A.
10/3/2011 01:07:00 pm

... called off Christmas celebrations in 2010. A December 23, 2010 news item in The Richmond Times-Dispatch reported that "Christians across Iraq have been living in fear since the assault on Our Lady of Salvation Church on Oct. 31 as members of this Catholic congregation were celebrating Sunday Mass. Sixty-eight people were killed. Days later, Islamic insurgents bombed Christian homes and neighborhoods across the capital. Later, al-Qaida insurgents threatened more attacks on Iraq's Christians, many of whom have fled their homes or the country since the church attack. A council representing Christian denominations across Iraq advised followers to cancel public celebrations of Christmas out of concern for their lives and to mourn the victims. Chaldean Archbishop Louis Sako of Kirkuk in northern Iraq summed up the situation, “Nobody can ignore the threats of al-Qaida against Iraqi Christians. We cannot find a single source of joy that makes us celebrate. The situation of the Christians is bleak."

Historically there were Christian dominated enclaves in countries throughout the Middle East, such as in Lebanon. Today, the remaining 1.5 million Christians represent merely a third of the population and are threatened. Likewise in Bethlehem, where the Palestinian Authority now controls the city – the birthplace of Jesus -- the Christians have been pushed out through intimidation and murder, resulting in a diminution from a majority to less than 15% of the city's population. In an ironic twist, the Muslim Palestinian Authority has banned the sale of souvenir crosses to tourists…

The Washington based Christian Post headlined its December 24, 2007 issue with "Gaza Christians observe somber Christmas after murder" and the Financial Times (FT) of April 22, 2011 reported that in a square in Nazareth, right below the Basilica of the Annunciation, a Koranic verse warns that "whoever seeks a religion other than Islam, it will never be accepted of him, and in the Hereafter he will be one of the losers." Yet, it is the spectre of losing in the here-and-now that most haunts the dwindling number of adherents to Christianity in the land of his birthplace…

Throughout the Middle East today, Christians have become endangered species. They are under threat from radical Islamists who have seized the opportunity, with mayhem in the Arab world, to settle the score with their Christian countrymen. With limited opportunities available to them in the Arab world, Christians now seek new lives elsewhere in Europe, as well as in North and South America. Those remaining are accused by Muslims of "complicity in the schemes of foreign predators." The FT conclusion is that "The wave of revolution ripping through the region would uncover the submerged hard-wiring of sectarianism."

The fate of Christians in the Middle East may not be the same as that of the Jews in Europe on the eve of World War II; they do have the option to leave while the Jews did not. However, what is rather similar is the abandonment of the Middle East Christians by the liberal/mainline Protestant churches, which have been putting their energies into divestment from Israel campaigns rather than using their resources to support their persecuted Christian brothers and sisters in the Middle East. The lack of solidarity in the West by the churches, governments, and media to the plight of the Christian minorities is abominable.

The Arab Spring is becoming a nightmare for Christians in the Arab-Muslim world, but that is obviously not the focus of our secularized and, at times, anti-Christian mainstream western media.

By Joseph Puder
Frontpage Magazine

Belen Haro
10/3/2011 02:04:47 pm

“Racism is man's gravest threat to man - the maximum of hatred for a minimum of reason.” Abraham J. Heschel

I decided to start with this phrase because it illustrates the main point I will be focusing on. There is not point to mistreat, discriminate or think that someone is inferior because of the color of the skin. There is no reason! The racism or discrimination has occurred since the beginning of the history and many people have been mistreated and killed because of this. Black people have been one of the most affected groups because of racism, in past times they were even slaves, and nowadays they also have to face and suffer unfairness and discrimination because of the color of their skin.

There is a phase that impacted me, said by Nelson Mandela “I hate racial discrimination most intensely and all its manifestations. I have fought all my life; I fight now, and will do so until the end of my days”. Black people have to face this reality every day, they have to face the people’s judging eyes, murmuring and running away from them. Also in many places they don't have equal opportunities, to get a job, to get a mortgage, to enter into a good school. Also, because a black man is driving a nice car doesn't mean he stole it! This is something many people make jokes about, but also there are cases when policemen have stopped a car only because the driver is black.

There is also an experience I had when I was in high school, one day I went to a friend’s house and she has a nanny “Linda “that has taken care of her since she was born, she is a black woman from Esmeraldas. We decided to go to the supermarket to buy something to eat and when we were walking on the street a men came close to us watching Linda in a derogatory way and tells us a stupid question, are you okay girls? We immediately get so angry and start to yell at him and tell that he is an ignorant and racist man. Linda calmed us down because she said she was used to it. I just couldn’t believe that behavior! She is a great, intelligent, kind and sweet person; she doesn’t deserve to be pre judged like this.

To conclude, I would like to mention that we as humankind are all equal. I believe in God and as the Bible says we all have been created in his image and likeness, it means that to God’s eyes we all are equal, why we all can’t be equal to the human’s eyes? We have value for what we are, how we think and act, for our feeling and way to treat the rest and not for the color of our skin. The color of our skin doesn’t show anything more than that; color. And I think the ways to stop racism is through education, tolerance, respect, love and the knowledge that we all are equal.

“Let us all hope that the dark clouds of racial prejudice will soon pass away, and that in some not too distant tomorrow the radiant stars of love and brotherhood will shine over our great nation with all their scintillating beauty.” Martin Luther King, Jr.

Sources: http://thinkexist.com/quotations/racism/

Sofía Navarrete
10/3/2011 02:38:59 pm

September 15, 2011, 11:37 AM
CASE: Preschoolers, Name Calling and the Authorities

SOURCE: NY.TIMES: http://parenting.blogs.nytimes.com/2011/09/15/preschoolers-name-calling-and-the-authorities/?scp=6&sq=racism&st=cse

When do children come to understand the power of their words? Until they do, how can you hold them responsible?

That’s the central question asked by a report published in England on Wednesday, which found that children as young as 4 are being punished in school for calling other students names that are seen as slurs.

A civil liberties group reviewed school discipline reports and found that 20,000 elementary school students and 14,000 secondary school students in Britain are “reported” for racism or homophobia each year, under a 10-year-old law intended to monitor hate speech in schools. Most recently, eight nursery schoolers were reported for racism and one for homophobia.

As reporter Sarah O’Grady wrote in The Express:

The pupils are being disciplined for calling one another names like “chocolate bar” or “gaylord.” When questioned, most of the children admitted they did not know what the words mean.

Examples of the kinds of playground spats between 5-year-olds that teachers are forced to report include trivial incidents, such as one child calling another “milky way” or “broccoli head.”

Homophobic incident forms show a boy being reported for saying “this work’s gay.”
The authors of the report warn that, while probably well intentioned, “these systems are based on a profound misunderstanding of children.” Kids call each other names. Cruelty of any sort should be dealt with on the playground, critics of the rules tell Ms. O’Grady, but putting certain words into a separate, black-mark-on-your-permanent-record category is likely to cause more problems than it solves.

“Why should it be necessary to explain to 5- or 6-year-olds the meaning and implications of homophobia?” one educator asks in an editorial accompanying Ms. O’Grady’s article. “Or racism for that matter? Could they possibly understand anyway?”

There is no such national reporting requirement in United States schools, yet American parents still struggle with out-of-the-mouths-of-babes dilemmas. One reader told me about her son, in fourth grade at the time, whose class was studying the Civil War. “You look like a slave,” he told a black classmate, and was marched down to the principal’s office for a chat. He came home confused; he thought he had just been stating the facts. His classmate, in turn, came home upset.

One would assume that the intent of the law was not to censure preschoolers for calling classmates “broccoli head.” On the other hand, schools have seen the very real and devastating effects of classmates wielding words like weapons. So what should schools do about name calling? Are the same words different when they come from a 7-year-old? A 17-year-old? Where’s the line?

Anna Breymann
10/3/2011 02:52:02 pm

I’m writing about what I once witnessed. I was sitting in a train with a group of other young people, around my age. We were having a good time and at one stop a black family got onto the train. They passed our compartment with their two little children - a boy and a girl. One of my friends said: “Oh, how cute those little children are. When I’m older I want to have a black child myself.” This started a big discussion, because one of the boys started laughing, telling her he would laugh at her if she ever had a black child and went on about how bad and stupid black people are. I got really upset and got into an argument with him, and when I asked him if he knew any black person to justify his accuses he said no.
Another story I can tell is that once I was driving on an American highway with my uncle at night, we were stopped by the police. My uncle is black, I have to add. We were getting home from a concert, did not drive too fast or did anything against the law. In the rear mirror my uncle saw that a police car was following him. After a short while we had to pull over, because we were stopped by the police – for nothing. My uncle had to show his driver’s license, answer questions about where we have been, why he was having a white girl with him and where he was going. The police officer told my uncle to move slowly with one hand on the steering wheel and then checked if my uncle had any criminal records and because this wasn’t the case we were allowed to continue our way home. I found this very rude and discriminatory, because when I was sitting in the car with my aunt nobody ever asked why I was with her.

Anna Breymann, Angelita Ponce
10/3/2011 02:57:42 pm

Surrounded by mountains and with a unique historical context, emerge Quito; a capital with a diversity of colors, landscapes, histories, and above all, its inimitable people. It is here, in this magnificent little village where we can experiment the unparalleled sensation to be in the middle of our blue planet, our world. But also, it is the place where many little faces become invisible for our eyes. More than 4.800 children live in our streets, according to the Ecuadorian newspaper “hoy”. They are those little voices that we have ignored such a long time.
If we have no peace, it is because we have forgotten that we belong to each other.
Mother Teresa

How many times have we seen these little individuals next to us, and we have disregarded them? They represent 41% of the population of this country, with a diversity of traits and infinite identities. But for us, they interrupt our days by selling candy, singing a song or maybe cleaning our cars. They, the hope of our country, our future, in these circumstances are only a discomfort. And one more time, we should ask ourselves, if we act like this towards them, how can we generate a change without thinking of those who can do that?
That our society, meaning people who walk through the streets, are afraid. People who have present every day the information about violence or insecurity. Those who take the most careful measures to go outside since everywhere they are in danger. Although, a few meters away of our houses, job places, all of these preventives procedures fall apart. At the moment when we see that in the same street where we walk frightened, where we have our eyes fixed on the ground. We recognize a little boy, without shoes, cold, hungry, an orphan of a country, of a world. This little one who sees our cars passing by, taking care of someone younger than himself; builds at the same street, which for us is the most dangerous place, his home.

Anna Breymann, Angelita Ponce
10/3/2011 03:00:07 pm

“The worst of all the bad things done by bad people is the silence of the good people.”
Mahatma Gandhi

Unfortunately, here in Ecuador a high amount of very young children work in the streets, even during the night. If you go out, does not matter what day it is or what time those little boys and girls are always around. This leads to two different views on them. The first one is that you feel really sorry for those little ones, because they should go to school, play with friends or be in bed at night – but they are not. The other thing is that you try to avoid them, because they are annoying or even try to steal your belongings. So your mind is torn whether to support them or keep ignoring them.

The situation alone, that those children are trying to make money with whatever there is or whatever they have shows that they do not have an easy life. But what can we do about it? Is there anything to help them improve their lives? Is it okay to look away or do you, as a person in a better position, have to support others in weaker positions? Like Gandhi’s quote says, us being silent lets this situation continue, even if we are no racists or discriminatory people. So we must not look to the ground, ignore them, but find ways in order to provide them a better and more comfortable life, which little children should have.

10/4/2011 06:33:15 am

“In the end anti-black, anti-female, and all forms of discrimination are equivalent the same thing: anti-humanism”
Shirley Chisholm

According to the International Declaration of Human Rights, 1948, there was not a specific law in reference to women and children. Some years later two Conventions on the Right of the Child and Woman promoted their rights. The articles 2.1 Convention on the Rights of the Child,1989, say: “States Parties shall respect and ensure the rights set forth in the present Convention to each child within their jurisdiction without discrimination of any kind, irrespective of the child's or his or her parent's or legal guardian's race, color, sex, language, religion, political or other opinion, national, ethnic or social origin, property, disability, birth or other status” But, are these rights really practiced by our families?

Education –specially the one taught at home- is not the same for all kids. I remember my childhood for example, playing with my twin brother´s toys. I don´t know why, but I loved his cars and trucks. The question here is why my parents never bought me cars instead of dolls and mini-kitchens? Time went by so fast and all of a sudden I was 13 when my mom decided to teach me how to cook. Please note that I never asked her how to prepare any dish. I remember her words literally: You are a little woman and you have to know how to be a good woman, that means knowing how to cook, clean, iron and wash. For me all of this was weird. What about my twin brother? I had to assume then that if he didn´t knew how to cook he was a bad guy?. My mother looked at me and just said: Don´t ask me stupid questions…you are a girl and you brother is not; you are a little woman or you want people calling you “carishina”.

I also remember another episode of my youth that marked my life with frustration. This happened not just once. Every time that I asked for permission to go to a friend´s party they said a plain and concise NO. I was 14 years old when my best friend invited me to her Birthday. And again, this remained as an invitation. My parents discourse was: you are a woman and you have to stay at home, you´re a not a dog from the street! Again the same question: what about my brother? He already left to the party because he´s a guy, he took the car by the way…. So what was the problem? Was just the fact of being a girl? I can´t understand until today. The first time I went to a party occurred when I started living by myself in Santiago, Chile. I was 18 years old by then, and sadly I couldn´t celebrate any party with my friends from high school.
But the story doesn’t end here. Two years later, my mom passed away and I had to come back with my family. My father and my brothers supposed that I had to take care of the house as if I were my mom. This meant that my woman role came back, but not for long. In the beginning I accepted to sacrifice my personal and social life for them; however, I understood and realized that my father and brothers have hands, health and hungry enough to do or prepare whatever they felt they needed. In the end I have concluded that both law and rights exist, though it doesn’t mean that all the people practice or know about them. In real life –not in a convention paper- people follow what their cultural and familiar background tells them to follow. Nowadays, the experiences have shown me that my parents wanted to protect me with their way of education, even if I know I won’t educate my children with this kind of sex discrimination.

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    Schoele Ahouraiyan

    A University professor of multicultral education and languages, a mother of two beautiful kids, and a woman looking for a better world.


    Agosto 2011